When providers deliver unnecessary service

When providers deliver unnecessary services with the objective

When providers deliver unnecessary services with the objective of protecting themselves against lawsuits, this practice is called
defensive medicine
supplier-induced demand
primary protection
legal risk
2. Reimbursement is associated with which of the quad functions?
Financing
Insurance
Delivery
Payment
3. Which central agency manages the health care delivery system in the United States?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Commerce
None
4. National health care programs in other countries often use which of the following mechanism to control total health care expenditures?
Third parties
Capitation
Global budgets
A single-payer system
5. In the United States, who does not generally have access to basic and routine medical services?
People who need catastrophic care
Those eligible only for public programs
The uninsured
Those without private health insurance

6 .Which country utilizes socialized health insurance for employees?
Germany
United States
Great Britain
Australia
7. All of the following are main elements of the systems framework EXCEPT:
system inputs
system foundations
system structure
system processes
8. Deontology asserts:
That no one has a duty to do what is right
That it is society’s duty to do what is right
That it is an individual’s duty to do what is right
None of the above
9. Utilitarianism emphasizes:
Happiness and welfare for the poor
Happiness and welfare for the deserving
Happiness and welfare for the rich
Happiness and welfare for the masses
10. Supply-side rationing is also referred to as:
Nonprice rationing
Price rationing
Both a and b
None of the above
11. Prevalence is:
The total number of cases at a specific point in time divided by the specified population
The total number of cases at a wide range in time divided by the specified population
The number of new cases occurring during a specified period divided by the total population
The number of new cases occurring during a specified period divided by the population at risk
12. The limitations of market justice include:
Social problems are not adequately addressed
Society is not always protected from the consequences of ill health
It leads to inequitable access to health care
All of the above
13. Crude rates refer to:
A specific age group
The total population
A specific gender
None of the above
14. Holistic health adds which element to the World Health Organization definition of health?
Physical
Mental
Social
Spiritual
15. All of the following were factors explaining why the medical profession remained largely an insignificant trade in preindustrial America EXCEPT:
Medical practice was in disarray
Medical procedures were primitive
High demand for prescription drugs
Demand was unstable

16.The American system for delivering health care took its current shape during this period:
Preindustrial
Postindustrial
Twentieth century
none of the above
17. Today, are the leading cause of illness, disability, and death in the US.
typhoid
chronic conditions
acute illness
none of the above
18. This group was primarily responsible for leading the successful drive for
workers’ com pensation.
a.lnternal Revenue Code
American Medical Association
Blue Cross
the American Association of Labor Legislation
19. Capitation is:
integration of telecommunications in healthcare
umbrella fund for everyone
flat rate per worker per month
none of the above
20. All of the following are modes of economic interrelationships EXCEPT:
use of advanced telecommunications infrastructures in medicine
health professionals remain in the United States
consumers travel abroad to receive medical care
foreign direct investment in health services enterprises

21. What is an example of health care delivery existing due to social and political needs:
Medicaid
State Children’s Health Insurance Program
Multispecialty centers
None of the above.
22. All states require this to be licensed in order to practice. What is a require-
ment needed to be licensed?
graduation from an accredited medical school that awards a Doctor of Medicine
score of 85 on board exam
enrollment in internship program
none of the above
23. What is a main difference between primary care and specialty care?
primary care follows specialty care
primary care focuses on disease while specialty care focuses on the whole person
primary care is longitudinal and specialty care is episodic
none of the above
24. What is the principal source of funding for graduate medical education?
Medicare
Private corporations
International companies
none of the above.
25. Why are physicians most likely to concentrate in metropolitan and suburban areas?
better opportunities for high income
greater access to modern facilities and technology
cultural diversity
All of the above

26. Dental do not have to be licensed.
hygienists
pediatrics
assistants
none of the above
27. This act authorizes a variety of grants and scholarships to keep nurses in the field:
American Nursing Association Act
Reimbursement Act
Nurse Reinvestment Act of 2002
None of the above
28. Who is responsible for operational, clinical and financial outcomes of organizations that deliver health services?
Health Service Administrators
Allied Health Professionals
Physical Therapists
None of the above
29. This made additional resources available to the FDA, and resulted in a shortened approval process for new drugs.
Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962
Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997
Orphan Drug Act, 1983
Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992
30. What was the purpose of certificate of need (CON) laws?
Monitor the diffusion of new technology
Control the flow of federal funds for private projects
Control new health service programs
Control new construction and modernization projects

31. Which area of personal health expend itures has seen the greatest rise in recent years?
Long-term care
Hospital services
Prescription drugs
Durable medical equipment
32. What is the role of an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
Establish guidelines for the method of conducting research
Verify the results of clinical trials
Approve and monitor research that involves human subjects
All of the above
33. Generally, at the start of medical treatment
benefits exceed costs
cost-efficiency is minimum
costs exceed benefits
safety is not a major concern
34. Health technology assessment in the US is conducted primarily by
various government agencies
the NIH
the FDA
the private sector
35. According to the Institute of Medicine, the rise in prescription drug costs is
mainly attributed to
price inflation
increased use of existing drugs
research and development costs
replacement of older drugs by newer ones

36. What is the main factor that determines the level of demand for health
services in the US health care delivery system?
finances
insurance
health services
none of the above
37. Which of the following is NOT a fundamental principle that underlies the concept of insurance?
Risk is unpredictable for the individual insured.
Risk can be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy for a group.
Insurance provides a mechanism for transferring risk from the group to the individual.
Actual losses are shared on some equitable basis by all member of the insured group.
38. Most Americans obtain health insurance coverage through:
individual plans
employer-sponsored programs
self-insurance
none of the above.
39. The Medicare program finances medical care for:
persons 65 years and older
disabled individuals who are entitled to social security benefits
people who have end-stage renal disease.
All of the above
40. Who is eligible for Medicaid?
Children and pregnant women whose family income is at or below l33 percent of the Federal Poverty Level.
Families with children
The elderly
none of the above

41. How does workers’ compensation differ from regular health insurance?
it becomes supplemental coverage for eligible employees
employers are required by law to bear the full cost of the benefits
it is regionally managed
none of the above
42. This Act authorized by Congress supports “safety net” hospitals in inner cities and rural ares.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985
Indian Reconciliation Act of 1989
Cost Plus Act of 1992
None of the above
43. What is the point of entry into the health services system?
specialization
primary care
coordination of care
essential care
44. Which factor has NOT contributed to the increase in outpatient care?
reimbursement
technological
family
social
45. are the backbone of ambulatory care and constitute the majority
of primary care.
home health care
hospice services
physicians as office-based practitioners
alternative medicine

46. Hospice services include:
pain management
psychosocial support
spiritual support
all of the above
47. What is a characteristic of a free clinic?
services are provided at no charge or nominal charge
they are not directly supported by government agencies
services are delivered mainly by volunteer trained staff
all of the above.
48. ____________ are regarded as nontraditional and include a wide range of treatments.
complementary medicine
alternative medicine
material medicine
none of the above
49. In 2004, what type of office visits were visited the most?
a, physicians in general and family practice
physicians in specialty services
physicians in internal medicine
physicians in gynecology
50. ALOS is an indicator of
use of hospital capacity
frequency of use
severity of illness
access


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