T F Motives can affect the direction and intensity

181. T F Motives can affect the direction and intensity of behavior.
182. T F At a single point in time, a person’s motives are all of equal strength.
183. T F In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the most fundamental need is safety.
184. T F Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is an explanation of how motives operate.

185. T F Motives include knowledge and positive or negative feelings about an object.
186. T F Ads for beauty products often suggest that purchasing these products will bring love,
helping to fulfill one’s needs for love and affection.
187. T F Patronage motives influence where one purchases products on a regular basis.
188. T F Motives always operate at a conscious level.
189. T F Although marketers may attempt to influence what a consumer learns, their attempts
are seldom fully successful.
190. T F Learning associated with purchase behavior is not particularly affected by
reinforcement.
191. T F By giving out free samples, a marketer is trying to influence the direct experiences of
consumers even before they purchase products.
192. T F An attitude consists of one’s evaluation feelings and behavioral tendencies toward an
object or idea.
193. T F Just as attitudes are learned, they can be changed.
194. T F An attitude scale is useful in helping to measure the intensity of feelings.
195. T F Marketers may try to change consumers’ attitudes toward a product if they feel that a
significant number of consumers have strong negative attitudes toward it.

196. T F One’s personality is a set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that
result in consistent patterns of behavior in certain situations.
197. T F There is strong research evidence that personality characteristics are major
determinants of purchasing power.
198. T F A person’s self-concept may affect whether the person buys a product in a particular
product category, but it has little impact on brand selection.
199. T F Consumers’ buying decisions are not affected by other people.
200. T F A role consists of a set of actions and activities that a person in a particular position is
expected to perform.
201. T F Family influences are not directly related to purchasing decisions.
202. T F Consumer socialization is the process through which a person acquires the knowledge
and skills to function as a consumer.
203. T F Consumers’ purchasing decisions and brand decisions may be influenced strongly by
reference groups.
204. T F A reference group acts as a point of comparison and as a source of information for an
individual.
205. T F When a product is a conspicuous one, reference-group influence is more likely to
affect the brand decision.

206. T F Jon’s colleagues at work want to take a skiing trip. Jon grew up in Colorado and
learned to ski as a young child so the group consults him about the best slopes and ski gear needed
for the trip. Jon’s role is that of an opinion leader.
207. T F An opinion leader provides information and is viewed as an authority on many
spheres of interest for reference-group participants.
208. T F Income is the key factor in determining a person’s social class.
209. T F A social class is a closed aggregate of individuals with similar social ranking.
210. T F Social classes are referred to as open aggregates of individuals because people can
move into and out of them

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