51. The ability to reach and serve a market segment defines the characteristic of: a. measurability. b. actionability. c. accessibility. d. substantiality. 52. Married and unmarried women may use the same perfume, and might respond in a similar way to promotional sales of this fragrance. It might, therefore, be difficult to consider that marital status designates separate segments in this case. Which of the following requirements of effective segmentation would probably rule out segmentation based on marital status in this case? a. actionable b. substantial c. differentiable d. measurable 53. Stephanie Cross has a small clothing store, and has identified seven separate categories of clothing buyers that form the general market for clothing stores in her city. Her problem is that because of a limited advertising budget, she cannot effectively reach these various segments (especially since several of the segments are distant from her store). Which of the following requirements of effective segmentation would probably rule out segmentation based on Stephanie’s current segmentation classification scheme? a. actionable b. substantial. c. differentiable d. measurable 54. In market targeting, a firm looks at all of the following factors EXCEPT: a. segment size and growth. b. segment structural attractiveness. c. company objectives and resources. d. segment public relations value. 55. All of the following factors can affect the attractiveness of a market segment EXCEPT: a. the presence of many strong and aggressive competitors. b. the likelihood of government monitoring. c. actual or potential substitute products. d. the power of buyers in the segment. 56. A(n) __________________ is a set of buyers sharing common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve. a. undifferentiated market b. market segment c. target market d. differentiated market 57. A market-coverage strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and go after the whole market with one offer is called: a. undifferentiated marketing. b. differentiated marketing. c. concentrated marketing. d. turbo marketing. 58. Deciding to target several market segments and design separate offers for each is called: a. undifferentiated marketing. b. differentiated marketing. c. concentrated marketing. d. turbo marketing. 59. A growing number of firms have adopted differentiated marketing. However, one drawback to this approach is that it: a. is hard for managers to understand. b. increases the costs of doing business. c. alerts competitors as to your strategy. d. is a poor strategy internationally. 60. The practice of going after a large share of a smaller market or subsets of a few markets is called: a. undifferentiated marketing. b. differentiated marketing. c. concentrated marketing. d. turbo marketing. 61. All of the following would be among the chief factors to consider when choosing a market-coverage strategy EXCEPT: a. organizational culture. b. product variability. c. product’s life-cycle. d. market variability. 62. The way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes is called ________________. a. market segmentation b. image psychology c. product position d. market targeting 63. The positioning task consists of three steps. Which of the following does not belong? a. Identifying a set of possible competitive advantages upon which to build a position. b. Choosing the right competitive advantages. c. Comparing the position with ethical and legal guidelines established by the trade. d. Selecting an overall positioning strategy. 64. The key to winning and keeping customers is to understand their needs and buying processes better than competitors do and: a. advertise constantly to let customers know about changes in products and services. b. hire the best sales people. c. have an updated Web presence. d. to deliver more value. 65. Product differentiation can be along all of the following lines EXCEPT: a. consistency. b. durability. c. reliability. d. competitive parity. 66. Gaining competitive advantage through speedy or careful delivery is an example of which type of differentiation? a. product b. services c. personnel d. image 67. The strategy of choosing one attribute to excel at to create competitive advantage is known as (the): a. unique selling proposition. b. underpositioning. c. overpositioning. d. confused positioning. 68. In general, a company needs to avoid three major positioning errors. Which of the following is NOT one of those errors? a. underpositioning b. repositioning c. overpositioning d. confused positioning 69. In determining which differences to promote, focusing on a difference that delivers a highly valued benefit to target buyers would mean selecting the difference that is most: a. important. b. distinctive. c. superior. d. communicable. 70. Choosing a product difference that competitors cannot easily copy would be which kind of differentiation criterion? a. important b. distinctive c. superior d. preemptive 71. A brand’s _____________ is the full positioning of the brand—the full mix of benefits upon which it is positioned. a. distinctive proposition b. preemptive proposition c. value proposition d. superior proposition 72. The text describes a series of value propositions. Of these propositions, Southwest Airlines has chosen to adopt the: a. more for less proposition. b. less for much less proposition. c. same for less proposition. d. more for more proposition.