Introduction to Ethics: Discussions

This assignment is based on series of discussions, please number and answer them all. Use provided sources and or sources within U.S
This assignment is based on answering series of Discussions Posts, please answer and number All of them:
Weeks 4-5
Assignment #1. Quiz
Everyone, I have taken definitions of our main Ethical Theories (read them in Recommended Resources at bottom) and created word clouds showing the most important terms.
It is important that you learn these theories since you will apply one to your project topic in order to attempt to either solve or better illustrate the issue/dilemma you analyze. Kidder refers to them as Resolution Principles (Chapter 7).

I would like you to match our Ethical Theories to the word clouds that most accurately describe them. Have fun!

Match these theories:

1) Deontological ethics
2) Virtue Ethics
3) Consequentialism

Recommended Resources

1. Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2008). Deontological ethics. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with dentological ethics.)

2. Hursthouse, R. (2012). Virtue ethics. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2012 Edition. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/ (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with virtue ethics.)

3. Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/ (It is recommended that you read this article in order to familiarize yourself with consequentialism.)
Assignment #2 How is it relevant
A very important intellectual standard in this course will be relevance (Paul & Elder). This standard should be applied consistently in every contribution you make to the discussions.

According to Paul & Elder a statement or comment is relevant when it is „directly connected with and bears on the issue at hand”. A short-hand way to remember this standard is to consider whether the point or post being made is „on track”? (Paul & Elder)

I would like you to provide some examples in past courses (discussions) or work situations whereby the standard of relevance was absent or lapsed during a serious conversation.

Source: Paul, R. and Elder, L. Foundation For Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/universal-intellectual-standards/527
Assignment #3 Deep thought
Especially in ethics, we must practice a way of treating issues that acknowledges their complexities and dilemma-like quality. The standard that does this best is called depth (Paul & Elder). In our course I expect this standard to be on display and in action.
According to Paul & Elder we think deeply about an issue when we get „beneath the surface…identify the complexities…,and then deal with those complexities in a…responsible way” (Paul & Elder).
An example, suppose one of your colleagues justified the death penalty with this statement: „ I believe in an eye for an eye. If you take a life, you lose yours.”
Does this pass the test of depth? Why/why not? How could the issue be dealt with more responsibly?
Source: Paul, R. and Elder, L. Foundation For Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/universal-intellectual-standards/527
Weeks 6-8
Assignment #4The Lakota Way
Our third common reading is The Lakota Way. Joseph M. Marshall III (The Book “The Lakota Way” can be found )is a member of the Sicangu Lakota Sioux tribe, his first language is Lakota. If you compare, for example, Kidder’s book with The Lakota Way, you will immediately notice a difference in the form the ethical content is presented. Marshall uses story telling to explore ethics and present tough choices that people faced, either during his life or the lives of his ancestors. Do you find his method more compelling, interesting, and easier to understand than Kidder’s? Which style is closer to the one you learned about ethics from? You could perhaps draw some comparisons between Native American stories embodying ethical principles and the stories that many in the West have read about in the Judeo-Christian Bible (we call them parables in the New Testament).
Keep in mind that Marshall is showing us how people have confronted and navigated tough ethical choices in his culture. His book also shows us how those choices have been remembered and compiled into archetypal stories as part of an oral tradition. This tradition can be unpacked using the ideas and concepts in Kidder. For example, what ethical framework is presupposed in Marshall’s very method of presentation? You might want to do some research on the term Character-based or ‘Virtue Ethics.’ Additionally, do Marshall’s stories present us with Ethical Dilemmas or Moral Temptations as described in Kidder? Do the characters in Marshall’s stories have to decide between two equally good values, or must they choose between right vs wrong?
Assignment #5 Think in my shoes
One of the most challenging intellectual standards to maintain in an ethics course is what Paul & Elder call breadth.

According to them, thinking broadly means „considering the issue at hand from every relevant viewpoint” (Paul & Elder).

When we refuse to enter an intellectual or emotional viewpoint that is different, even counter to our own, our thinking lacks breadth.

One mechanism the mind uses to ‘protect’ its own position in the debates over capital punishment, abortion, and even euthanasia is to vilify those who hold an opposing point of view. In doing so, we refuse to consider other views, and therefore fail to apply the critical standard of breadth in our thinking.

Nonetheless, it seems clear that very intelligent and thoughtful people have come down on different sides of thorny, divisive, ethical issues.

Why do we sometimes vilify those who hold views that differ from our own on significant ethical matters, and what can be done to eliminate this response to dissent and disagreement?

Consider whether this critical standard is actually what we could call ‘empathy.’

Describe your own efforts to apply breadth to your thinking when it comes to ethical issues? Are you good at it? Is it difficult for you? Why/why not?

Source: Paul, R. and Elder, L. Foundation For Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/universal-intellectual-standards/527

Assignment #6 The circle
Regarding the conflicts Marshall presents, does his use and application of the imagery of the circle provide a larger framework than Leaf’s within which to potentially resolve conflict? He states:“The greatest principle the circle symbolizes for me is the equality that applies to all forms of life” (Marshall, 2001, p.225

Assignment #7 Callahan’s The Cheating Culture Discussion/Reading Reflection
Below are four questions about the Callahan reading assignment and/or discussion for last Module. You will be awarded credit for answering the questions.

1. “Identify one important concept, research finding, theory, or idea in ethics that you learned while reading The Cheating Culture assignment last Module.”

2. “Why do you believe that this concept, research finding, theory, or idea in ethics is important?”

3. What do you learn by applying Kidder’s dilemma paradigms to the examples in The Cheating
Culture?

4. “What question(s) has the assignment raised for you? What are you still wondering about?”

Assignment #8 Embrace your bombs
I would like to share a video interview to help you put into perspective the feelings you may have experienced during the brainstorm period of the course.
I hope that it helps in some way.
http://www.cc.com/video-clips/ox4ms0/the-daily-show-with-jon-stewart-exclusive—billy-crystal-extended-interview-pt–3http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/thu-september-12-2013/exclusive—billy-crystal-extended-interview-pt–3

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