High-Quality Decisions

101)Most marketers today believe they still lack a sufficient quantity of research data to make high-quality decisions.1

102)The real value of marketing research and information lies not in quantity but in the customer insights provided.

103)An effective MIS assesses information needs, develops needed information, and helps decision makers use the information.

Objective: 4-1

104)Today, marketing managers view marketing information not only as an input for making internal decisions but also as an input for external partners.

105)Too much marketing information can be as problematic as too little.

106)When you glean information from your company’s accounting and sales records stored in the company’s computer system, you are developing an internal database.

107)Because data age quickly, keeping the database current requires a major effort.

108)Good sources of competitive marketing intelligence include competitors’ annual reports, business publications,:

109)Before the research problems and objectives have been defined, researchers must determine the exact information needed and present it to management.

110)Marketing researchers can conduct their own searches of secondary data sources by using commercial online databases.

111)Because secondary data provide good starting points and often help to define problems and research objectives, most companies do not also need to collect primary data.

112)Focus groups use no interviewer to bias the answers, may produce more honest answers, and can be used to collect large amounts of data at a low cost per respondent.

113)Custom social networks such as the Adidas Insider community organized by Adidas allow marketers to address the problem of controlling who is in an online sample.

114)The most important issue facing online researchers is the lack of a broad cross section of consumers who have access to the Internet.

115)Ideally, a sample should be representative so that the researcher can make accurate estimates of the thoughts and behaviors of the larger population.

116)A researcher who wants to calculate confidence limits for sampling error would use nonprobability samples.

117)Larger samples typically are more expensive but do not provide more reliable results. 118)Open-ended survey questions are particularly useful in exploratory research.

119) Interpretation of market research data should be the responsibility of the researchers, not the marketing managers.

120)The ability to reach respondents is a major concern in international marketing research. 121)As part of her company’s customer insight group, Carmen should expect to use both secondary and primary data to develop customer and market information.

122)You have just extracted sales and cost data used by the accounting department for preparing financial statements. Most likely, this information is complete and in useable form to build an internal marketing database.

123)As a part of a research team, Fatima observed five groups of teenagers shop, socialize, and eat dinner at a local mall. Fatima was participating in traditional quantitative research

124)ABC Interior Designs wants to collect research data through mechanical observation. The three typical methods are video cameras, checkout scanners, and Internet surveys.

125)You have just identified the “touch points” of the 400 best customers in your database. At this point, you want to manage detailed information about each of them to maximize customer loyalty. You should use customer relationship management (CRM).

126)Discuss the makeup and functions of a marketing information system (MIS).

127) Marketers can obtain needed information from internal data, competitive marketing intelligence, and marketing research. Compare and contrast each of these.

128) Describe the basic marketing research process.

129)Briefly compare the three different types of research approaches for gathering primary data..

130)Discuss the advantages/benefits of each of the contact methods.

131)Describe the three decisions a researcher must make when designing a sample.

132)Compare and contrast closed-ended questions and open-ended questions for gathering data. are 133)How can a company overcome the problem of gathering internal data for research purposes when the data is usually scattered widely across the organization?

134)Discuss several ways in which smaller organizations can use marketing research techniques at little or no expense.

135)Explain the common problems that international marketing researchers encounter. countries may hinder the process of collection.

136)Briefly explain the following statement: “Too much information can be as harmful as too little.”

137)You have decided to run for a local political office. You want to hand-deliver campaign materials in person to the homes of voters. Explain how competitive marketing intelligence plays a role in this scenario.

138)When do marketers need marketing research?

139)Explain why exploratory research, descriptive research, or causal research would be the best method for determining whether shoppers in the Midwest are more sensitive to a price increase for laundry soap than shoppers on the East Coast are.


140)Why is it important for the statement of the problem and the research objectives to guide the entire research process?

141)You want to determine whether no-smoking policies have impacted employee morale in the United States in the past two decades. Are any secondary data likely available? Why?

142)You want to determine whether no-smoking policies have impacted employee morale in the United States among workers in companies that employ fewer than 50 workers in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Are any secondary data likely available? Why?

143)Give two ways that a researcher should evaluate information in online databases.


144)You are trying to determine whether retired people drink more coffee at McDonald’s during lunch than they do during dinner. Why is observation research NOT effective in this scenario?

145)Why would survey research be a better approach than observation research when attempting to assess customer satisfaction?

146)A marketer of frozen dinners has decided to collect consumer feedback via a focus group interview. How might the marketer use the focus group interview to determine whether peas or green beans should be included with the turkey entrée?

147)A researcher is collecting data from travelers in an airport. Why might a sample be most appropriate?


148)Explain why it’s important for both the researcher and the marketing manager to interpret the findings of market research.

149)Why is it difficult to obtain relevant and reliable secondary data when conducting international marketing research?


150) Why has consumer resentment toward marketing research been growing? information; many also simply resent the intrusion of marketing research and dislike surveys that are too long or too personal.

Principles of Marketing, 14e (Kotler)

Chapter 5 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior

1)________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management. A) Brand personality

B) Consumption pioneering C) Early adoption

D) Buying behavior

E) Understanding the difference between primary and secondary data

2)The consumer market is made up of which of the following?

A)individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption

B)households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption

C)businesses that purchase goods and services

D)A and B

E)all of the above

3) Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.

A)buyer responses


C)components of the buyer’s decision process

D)buyer characteristics

E)buying attitudes

4)Of the following, the best starting point for understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is the ________ model of a buyer’s behavior.

A) belief

B) subcultural C) generational

D) stimulus-responseE) societal

5)Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps. Which is NOT one of these?






6) The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s ________, which has two parts. First, the buyer’s characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer’s decision process itself affects the buyer’s behavior.


B)black box



E)social class

7)In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer’s environment?

A) economic B) technological C) political

D) channel E) cultural

8)________ is the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior.


B)Brand personality

C)Cognitive dissonance

D)Social class

E)Selective perception

9)Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.

A) aspirational groups B) reference groups C) subcultures

D) membership groups E) social networks Answer: C

10)Which of the following is NOT considered an important American subculture by marketers? A) Hispanic Americans

B) African Americans C) mature consumers D) opinion leaders E) Asian Americans

11)This group of consumers tends to buy more branded products and to make shopping a family event, with children having a big say in the purchase decision. In general, they are very brand loyal, and they favor companies who show special interest in them.

A) Hispanic Americans B) African Americans C) Asian Americans D) mature consumers E) the upper middles

12)________, the fastest-growing U.S. population subsegment, now number nearly 50 million. A) African Americans

B) Hispanic Americans C) Asian Americans D) Mature consumers E) Gays and lesbians

13)Although more price-conscious than other population segments, ________ consumers tend to be strongly motivated by quality and selection. Brands are important. They seem to enjoy shopping more than other ethnic groups do.

A) upper middle

B) African American C) mature

D) Asian American E) upper lower

14)________, the most affluent American demographic segment, now have more than $500 billion in annual spending power.

A) Hispanic Americans B) African Americans C) Asian Americans D) Gays and lesbians E) Gen Xers

15)Which of the following is NOT true of mature consumers?

A)The best strategy is to appeal to their active, multidimensional lives.

B)They are an ideal market for “do-it-for-me” services.

C)High-tech home entertainment products appeal to them.

D)They place more importance on brand names and are more brand loyal than members of other age groups.

E)They are a good market for cosmetics and personal care products.

16) ________ are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.

A)Social classes


C)Reference groups



17)What is one way that social class is NOT measured? A) occupation

B) education C) income

D) number of children in the family E) wealth

18)Which of the following statements is true regarding social class in the United States? A) Social class is determined primarily by income level.

B) Lines between social classes in the United States are fixed and rigid.

C) Social classes tend to show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles. D) Wealth is more critical than education level in measuring social class.

E) People are relegated to a permanent class layer in the United States

19)Family is one of the ________ factors that influence consumer behavior.






20) ________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a young basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.

A)Membership groups

B)Aspirational groups

C)Leading adopter groups

D)Leisure groups

E)Social class groups

21)________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.

A) Opinion leaders B) Habitual buyers C) Social networkers D) Stealth marketers E) Laggards Answer: A

22)Opinion leaders are also referred to as ________.

A)the influentials

B)the upper uppers

C)the middle class

D)the Rebounders

E)the buzz marketers

23) Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________, brand ambassadors who share their passion for a company’s products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.

A)leading adopters

B)brand evangelists

C)direct marketers

D)direct sellers


24)Companies that use brand ambassadors are participating in ________. A) opinion leading

B) traditional marketing C) buzz marketing

D) direct marketing E) values marketing

25)Facebook and Second Life are both examples of ________.

A)buzz markets

B)opinion leaders

C)social networks

D)early adopters

E)word-of-mouth markets

26)The ________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.

A) family

B) social class

C) membership group D) subculture

E) reference group

27)A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.

A) motive B) role

C) lifestyle D) life cycle E) tradition

28)A buyer’s decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer’s age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.

A) personal characteristics B) reference groups

C) perceptions D) attitudes

E) psychographics

29)People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.

A) belief and attitude

B) perception and personality C) age and life-cycle stage D)self-concept and learning E) family and tradition

30)Consumer information provider PersonicX uses a life-stage segmentation system that places U.S. households into one of 21 different life-stage groups. Which of the following PersonicX groups consists of young, energetic, well-funded couples and young families who are busy with their careers, social lives, and active recreation?

A) Taking Hold B) Beginnings

C) Transition Blues D) Our Turn

E) Golden Years

31)________ is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in her psychographics, including her activities, interests, and opinions.

A) Personality B) Culture

C) Lifestyle D) Motive

E) Social class

32)All of the following make up a person’s lifestyle EXCEPT ________.

A)AIO dimensions


C)dissonance-reducing buying behavior



33)A customer’s lifestyle can be measured by using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?

A) Activities, Interests, Opinions

B) Achievement, Involvement, Organizations C) Accommodation, Investment, Orientation D) Acknowledgements, nterests, Observations E) Adoptions, Interests, Occupations

34)________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or group. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.

A) Alternative evaluation B) Belief

C) Culture D) Personality

E) Self-awareness

35)Researchers have found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with “ruggedness.” Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?

A) brand perception B) product image C) brand personality D) brand concept E) brand equity Answer: C

36)Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, “we are what we have.” According to this premise, consumers


A) buy products to support their self-imagesB) do not identify with brand personalities C) are affected by subconscious motivations

D) are attracted to products that expand their existing attitudes E) conduct the information search

37)A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?

A) motivation B) perception

C) alternative evaluation D) learning

E) beliefs and attitudes

38)A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction. A) stimulus

B) perception C) culture D) motive E) tradition

39)According to Freud’s theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.

A) unaware of

B) self-conscious of C) aware of

D) status-driven about E) self-analytical about

40)The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations.

A) perception analysis B) subliminal motivation C) motivation research

D) need recognition investigation E) depth research technique

41)A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several brands as animals. This is an example of ________.

A) hierarchical needs analysis

B) interpretive consumer research C) status influence

D) buzz marketing E) information search

42)Maslow’s theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy. A) stimuli

B) beliefs and attitudes C) perceptions

D) human needs E) decisions

43)Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? A) physiological needs

B) safety needs C) stimulus needs

D) self-actualization needs E) social needs

44)What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

A)physiological needs

B)social needs

C)esteem needs

D)self-actualization needs

E)safety needs

45) ________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.



C)Selective grouping



46)People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person’s tendency to screen out most of the information to which he is exposed is called ________.

A) selective retention B) selective distortion C) selective attitude D) selective attention E) selective perception

47)People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.

A) selective retention B) selective distortion C) selective attitude D) selective attention E) selective perception

48)People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.

A) selective attention B) selective retention C) selective attitude D) selective distortion E) perceptual vigilance

49)Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.

A) alternative evaluation B) subliminal

C) perceptual D) hierarchical E) comparative

50)________ describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.




D)Cognitive dissonance

E)Attitude shift

51)Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) drives

B) stimuli C) cues

D) dissonance behavior E) reinforcement

52)________ are subtle stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.

A) Cues B) Drives

C) Reinforcers D) Personalities E) Impulses

53)If a consumer’s experience is rewarding, that consumer will probably use the product more and more. The consumer’s response to the product will be ________.

A) cued

B) variety-seekingC) reinforced

D) dissonant E) motivated

54)Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.

A) subliminal advertising B) social classes

C) learning theory D) need recognition

E) cognitive dissonance

55)A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.






56) A(n) ________ is a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.






57)When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will undertake ________. A) habitual buying behavior

B) complex buying behavior C) reflective buying behavior

D) dissonance-reducing buying behavior E)variety-seeking buying behavior

58)When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase but see little difference among brands, they most likely will undertake ________.

A) habitual buying behavior B) complex buying behavior C) reflective buying behavior

D) dissonance-reducing buying behavior E)variety-seeking buying behavior

59)When customers have a low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________.

A) complex buying behavior

B) dissonance-reducing buying behavior C) habitual buying behavior

D) variety-seeking buying behavior E) brand conviction buying behavior

60)The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?

A) need recognition B) information search

C) variety-seeking buying behavior D) purchase decision

E) postpurchase behavior

61)The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem. A) need recognition

B) information search C) product awareness D) product interest

E) alternative evaluation

62)If the consumer’s drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n)


A) brand personality B) selective retention

C) postpurchase behavior D) information search E) product adoption

63)The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. Which of the following is NOT one of these types of sources?

A) personal B) commercial C) attitude

D) public

E) experiential

64)The information sources that are the most effective at influencing a consumer’s purchase decision are ________. These sources legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.

A) commercial B) public

C) experimental D) personal

E) attitudinal

65)Marketers describe the way a consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as


A) alternative evaluation B) information search C) purchase decision D) situational factors

E) postpurchase dissonance

66)Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake’s next step is most likely to be ________.

A) postpurchase behavior B) alternative evaluation C) opinion leadership

D) cognitive dissonance E) purchase decision

67)Generally, the consumer’s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?

A) postpurchase behavior B) attitude of others

C) cognitive dissonance D) alternative evaluation E) new product adoption

68)After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________.

A) variety-reducing behavior B) alternative evaluation

C) postpurchase behavior D) product expectations E) information searches

69)The relationship between the consumer’s expectations and the product’s ________

determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase. A) perceived performance

B) brand personality C) recognition

D) consumer market E) service quality

70)Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.

A) need recognition

B) cognitive dissonance C) purchase decisions D) legitimization

E) dissatisfaction Answer: B

71)When a customer feels uneasy about losing out on the benefits of a brand she chose not to purchase, she is experiencing ________.

A) selective retention B) selective attention C) selective distortion D) cognitive dissonance

E) dissonance-reducing behavior

72)Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.

A) need recognition stage B) adoption process

C) evaluation process D) trial process

E) quality assessment

73)Which of the following is NOT one of the stages that customers go through in the process of learning about and making decisions about a new product or service?

A) awareness B) interest C) evaluation D) acceptance E) trial

74)Which of the following is the final stage in the new product adoption process? A) awareness

B) adoption C) evaluation D) acceptance E) trial

75)Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.

A) alternative evaluations

B) dissonance-reducing buying behaviors

C) product characteristics that influence rate of adoption D) individual differences in innovation

E) postpurchase behaviors

76)Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.

A) subculture B) social class

C) social network D) life-cycle stage E) lifestyle

77)A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band’s fans will see them wearing the company’s shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.

A) membership group B) reference group C) status symbol

D) subculture E) lifestyle

78)Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n) ________.

A) upper middle

B) membership group C) opinion leader

D) brand personality E) experiential source

79)Shane Sudendorf is an active member of her sorority, two intramural teams, and a service organization at her college. She also actively participates on two online social networks, posting information about her day along with her thoughts on music, food, fashion, and culture. From this description, which of the following is the best way to describe Shane?

A) an opinion leader B) a status symbol C) a laggard

D) a Potential Rebounder E) a brand ambassador

80)There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.

A) selective distortion B) subculture

C) lifestyle D) personality E) life cycle

81)According to one analyst, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle can make you feel like “the toughest, baddest guy on the block.” Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a(n) ________.

A) attitud

B) life-cycle stage C) brand motivation D) brand personality E) brand self-image

82)A marketer of hair care products targeted at African American women created an advertising message that told the women their hair could be worn any way they wanted as opposed to wearing it straight. The message suggested the women did not need to conform to the mainstream media definition of beauty. It is most accurate to say that this ad was based on an understanding of ________.

A) social class

B) the family life cycle C) self-concept

D) lifestyle

E) sensory marketing

83)Mark has long supported the actions and decisions of his city’s mayor. However, many recent news stories have raised questions about the ethics of the mayor’s programs and initiatives. Mark doubts that the mayor, in whom he has such faith, could behave unethically, and Mark tends to distrust the information in the media. Mark continues to support the mayor. It is most accurate to say that Mark has engaged in ________.

A) selective distortion B) selective attitude C) selective retention D) selective attention E) perceptual defense

84)Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The issue became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.

A) subliminal messaging B) status factors

C) selective attention D) shifting self-concept

E) unconscious motivations

85)Bob’s job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.

A) subliminal attention B) selective attitude

C) selective interpretation D) selective attention

E) perceptual defense

86)Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________. A) selective distortion

B) selective attitude C) selective retention D) selective attention E) perceptual defense

87)George is buying his first house. He has found two houses that he thinks he likes. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences between these two houses. George will likely undertake ________.

A) variety-seeking buying behavior B) complex buying behavior

C) opinion leadership

D) dissonance-reducing buying behavior E) marketing myopia

88)Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Pat is experiencing ________.

A) postpurchase culture B) selective perception

C) postpurchase dissonance D) purchase decision

E) information evaluation

89)For the past 10 years Bill and Margaret Kennedy have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, ever win the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. They want to be certain to choose the best one. Bill and Margaret are most likely to exhibit ________.

A) complex buying behavior

B) dissonance-reducing buying behavior C) habitual buying behavior

D) variety-seeking buying behavior E) brand familiarity buying behavior

90)Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead, she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.

A) dissonance-reducing buying behavior B) complex buying behavior

C) habitual buying behavior

D) variety-seeking buying behavior E) brand familiarity buying behavior

91)Lexus works to keep customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight the customer in order to gain a customer for life. In this pursuit, Lexus is focused on which step of the buyer decision process?

A) need recognition B) information search

C) evaluation of alternatives D) purchase decision

E) postpurchase behavior

92)An invitation to go skiing for the weekend forced Donna to look at her current wardrobe. She decided she needed a much warmer coat. Donna was in which stage of the purchase decision? A) product evaluation

B) situational analysis C) need recognition D) problem screening E) information search

93)Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she will ask her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She will search the newspaper for coat sales, and she will visit nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.

A) product evaluation B) alternative evaluation C) need recognition

D) information search E) purchase decision

94)Robert has taken up bicycle riding as a hobby and as a way to maintain his physical stamina. He understands he will need to drink adequate water when he is bike riding. He wants to buy a hydration system. Having gathered a great deal of information, he has decided to compare three systems: Waterbags for Roadies, Supertanker Hydropacks, and Fast Water. Robert is in the

________ stage of his purchase decision. A) problem recognition

B) evaluation of alternatives C) product choice

D) postpurchase evaluation E) information choice

Diff95)Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.

A) information search B) situational analysis C) alternative evaluation D) purchase decision

E) postpurchase behavior

96)Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?

A) innovator B) middle upper

C) early majority D) late majority E) laggards

97)Which of the following would a marketer be LEAST likely to do to encourage habitual buying behavior?

A) dominate shelf space

B) run frequent reminder advertising C) keep shelves fully stocked

D) stress several key points in ad copy

E) focus on visual imagery and symbols in ad campaigns

Refer to the scenario below to answer the following questions.

Selman & Saks, a maker of men’s and women’s razors and electric hair trimmers, had little reason to become involved in the global arena. But after acquiring Wellman Enterprises, whose largest division engages in a licensing agreement with a German firm to produce women’s hosiery, managers at Selman & Saks wondered just whether a company-wide global focus would be more profitable after all.

Managers at Selman & Saks studied Wellman’s licensing agreement in great detail. Though seeingfirst-hand the benefits Wellman found with the licensing agreement, managers decided that Selman & Saks would target the French market merely via exporting.

With the assistance of a domestic export department, the Selman & Saks razors and hair trimmers entered France. For six months, sales were mediocre. But after that, sales suffered. Opinions varied among numerous managers as to the cause of the failure. “Who knows the local market better than people who live there?” was a comment heard throughout Selman & Saks. “Maybe we needed an alliance with a French firm, or a licensing agreement, before racing to get there.”

98) Which of the following is the strongest reason that the owners of The Attic Trunk might NOT want to completely discount the mature consumers as a still-viable target market?

A)Mature consumers wield considerable influence over purchases made by their children and grandchildren.

B)Mature consumers account for almost half of all consumer spending in the United States.

C)Mature consumers are spending an increasing percentage of their income on specialty items such as those originally sold by The Attic Trunk.

D)Mature consumers are interested in shopping where younger families shop in an effort to look as young as they feel.

E)Mature consumers are less willing to shop around and change brands than younger consumers are, so they will likely remain loyal to The Attic Trunk.

Answer: B

99)Many families with children are now attracted to the shopping district in Forest Ridge. What characteristics about families as consumer groups might the owners of The Attic Trunk want to keep in mind?

A) Though more women hold jobs outside the home today than when The Attic Trunk first opened, husband-wife involvement n the buying process has remained relatively unchanged. B) Children have considerable amounts of disposable income and have a strong influence on family buying decisions.

C) Women today account for 50 percent of all technology purchases. D) Men today account for about 40 percent of all food purchases.

E) Women influence nine out of ten new home and vacation purchases.

100)It is most likely that each consumer segment attracted to The Attic Trunk would have which of the following in common with the other consumer segments?

A) subculture B) personality

C) AIO dimensions D) life-stage

E) membership groups

101)The starting point of understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is called the marketing stimulus model of buyer behavior.

102)Subcultures are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.

103)Consumers who are 50 or older have more than twice as much discretionary buying power as consumers ages 18 to 34.

104)Social class is based on shared value systems and common life experiences and situations.

105)Online social networks represent an important form of buzz for marketers.

106)Children exert little influence on family buying decisions, particularly in areas such as entertainment and food.

107)Personality is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics. Answer: FALSE

108)A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors: motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudes.

109)Maslow’s theory is that human needs-including physiological, safety, social needs, esteem, andself-actualization needs-are arranged in a hierarchy and that an unsatisfied need motivates an individual to take action to satisfy it.

110)Alternative evaluation is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.

111)A belief is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. 112)Dissonance-reducing buying behavior typically occurs when a buyer sees little difference among brands but is highly involved with the purchase.

113)Commercial sources of information typically legitimize and evaluate products for buyers. 114)After purchasing a product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied and will engage in postpurchase behavior.

115)Most unhappy customers explain their reasons for dissatisfaction to the company that sold the product.

116)When a consumer learns about a new product for the first time and makes a decision to try it, the consumer is engaged in the alternative evaluation process.

117)People differ greatly in their readiness to try new products. In each product area, there are “consumption pioneers.” They are also called laggards.

118)Early adopters are opinion leaders in their communities and adopt new ideas early but carefully.

119)Members of the early majority are deliberate; although they rarely are leaders, they adopt new ideas before the average person.

120)Two of the characteristics that are especially important in influencing an innovation’s rate of adoption are relative advantage and compatibility.

121)Because people are able to move between social classes, these classes are relatively impermanent and disordered divisions composed of members who do not share values, interests, or behaviors.

122)A person buying a boat would be unlikely to exhibit complex buying behavior.

123)A marketer seeking to create brand familiarity should be more concerned about creative ad copy content than ad repetition.

124)Abel is considering whether or not to get an electronic reader. He has read online reviews of three different kinds of readers and has talked with two friends who own electronic readers. Abel is at the awareness stage of the new product adoption process.

125)Ed purchases new technological devices such as PDAs, DVRs, and MP3 players after many people he knows already own the devices. However, Ed is rarely among the last people he knows to purchase a new technology. Ed is part of the late majority adopter group.

126)Cultural factors exert a broad and deep influence on consumer behavior. The marketer needs to understand the role played by the buyer’s culture, subculture, and social class. Compare the roles of culture, subculture, and social class.

127)Many subcultures make up important market segments. Examples of four such important subculture groups include Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and mature consumers. Describe the general characteristics of each of these groups.

128)A consumer’s behavior is influenced by social factors, such as the consumer’s small groups, family, and social roles and status. Explain the differences among these social factors.

129)Each person’s distinct personality influences his buying behavior. Personality is usually described in terms of traits. What are these traits, and how do they affect the way people purchase items? Give at least one example.

130)Explain Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

131)Compare and contrast the four types of buying decision behavior exhibited by consumers. 132)Describe some important strategies for a marketer of a high-involvement product.

133) Listing them in the proper order, what are the stages in the buyer decision process? Describe each.

134) Identify and describe the stages in the adoption process.


135)Identify the product characteristics that influence the rate of adoption. Explain how each characteristic affects the rate of adoption.

136)What role do the four Ps play in consumer behavior?

137) Give an example of a cultural shift that may impact the marketing of products or services.

138)Why might the Hispanic American market be a viable targeted group for a new marketer of products?

139)In what way might a marketer rely on opinion leaders?


140)How does marketing through online social networks differ from more traditional marketing?

141)Explain why typical husband-dominant or wife-dominant products of the 1970s may no longer be regarded as typical.

142)Explain the concept of brand personality.

143) Explain why selective attention is not controllable by a marketer.

144) Explain how selective distortion is somewhat controllable by a marketer.

Objective: 5-2

145)Explain how selective retention affects what consumers remember about marketing messages.

146)Explain the role of marketers in the information search step of the consumer decision- making process. Give an example of how the marketer might execute this role.

147)Explain how marketers may be able to reduce postpurchase cognitive dissonance. 148)Why should marketers set up systems that encourage customers to complain about products?


149)What strategy should a marketer use upon learning that consumers are not buying a product because they do not perceive a need for it?

150)What are the differences between innovators and early adopters?

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