Which of the following are included in Ernest Becker’s “four strands of emphasis” in terror management theory?
1. The world is a terrifying place.
2. There is always an underlying good versus evil struggle, and good ultimately prevails.
3. Because the terror of death is so overwhelming, we conspire to keep it unconscious.
4. The basic motivation for human behavior is the need to control our basic anxiety, to deny the terror of death.
Answer 1 and 2
2 and 4
1, 2 and 3
1, 3 and 4
All of the following are musical expressions associated with death EXCEPT:
Epidemiologic transition is BEST defined as the
Answer shift in disease patterns characterized by a redistribution of deaths from the young to the old.
contribution of Americans’ highly mobile life styles to making death less immediate and intimate.
change in cultural attitudes toward death as a significant determinant of how we live our lives.
trend toward more rapid and sudden death from epidemics.
Suse Lowenstein’s work Dark Elegy functions as a reminder thatAnswer death is a dark figure.
life is fragile and survivors have to live with the loss.
classical and Christian symbols of death can be combined.
black is the color lining a casket.
Which of the following is NOT an example of Holocaust literature?
Answer Warsaw Diary by Chaim Kaplan
Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank
Walking Skeleton by Richard Shaw
Night by Elie Wiesel
In traditional Hawaiian culture, mele kanikau may have been carefully composed or spontaneous and usedAnswer at the signing of the will.
while sprinkling ashes in the Pacific.
during the funeral procession.
at the moment of death.
According to George Gerbner, the “mean world” syndrome describes depictions of death in the mass media as embedded in a structure of violence that conveys
Answer security and trust in the world.
an enhanced vitality and joy in life.
numbness and dismissal of death.
a heightened sense of danger.
In literature, the meaning of death is often explored as it relates to the individual as well as
Answer the author.
the sixth sense.
Substitutions of vague words or phrases for ones considered harsh are
the indicative voice.
In looking toward the future, Hannelore Wass observes that the study of death and dying will
die out as people will be less interested in such obscure subjects.
become a pop culture phenomenon focused on the “hereafter.”
be in the hands of the faith community.
help individuals and societies transcend self interest in favor of concerns for others.
“All that in human society which is socially rather than biologically transmitted” isAnswer culture.
In the study done by Helen Swain, what percentage of children said that death is unlikely or avoidable?Answer 95 percent
In Erickson’s model, approximately what age marks the beginning of the child’s moral sense?Answer birth-2 years
preschool and kindergarten years
middle childhood or school age
All of the following tends to be an important influence on the development of children’s attitudes toward death EXCEPT:Answer family
rising funeral costs
Children who have had first-hand encounters with death tend toAnswer still believe in reversible death.
avoid any mention of it.
deny its existence.
have a developmentally more mature understanding of death.
The text cites the lullaby “Rockabye Baby” to illustrate the point thatAnswer some lullabies are improper bedtime stories.
a number of lullabies contain messages about human and animal death.
each ending in life is followed by renewal.
singing lullabies is a relatively new ritual.
According to the text, approximately what percentage of Americans are affiliated with a religious tradition?Answer 60 percent
When writer and musician Ice T refers to the “killing fields” in American society, he is calling attention to theAnswer tobacco industry’s attempt to attract young people to cigarettes.
impact of drunk driving on motor vehicle deaths.
mounting death toll from environmental pollution.
prevalence of drug-related violence and gang warfare.
Characteristic of Piaget’s concrete operational stage is the use of
Answer motor abilities.
In a study of nursery rhymes, approximately what percentage dealt with death or mistreatment?Answer 10 percent
What term is best used to describe African customs such as prayer, sacrifice or libation, and other acts of respect shown to deceased members of the community?
The structure containing the bones and skulls of the dead and typically found within or near a church is called aAnswer charnel house.
Which was a turning point in the “medicalization” of death and dying?
Answer the Challenger disaster
the speculum mortis
One aspect of an “invisible death” is that death is
Answer less part of our common experience.
more devoted to elaborate mouring customs.
managed in ways inappropriate for common culture.
dominated by efforts to control the timing of death.
Which of the following Native American practices serves the purpose of separating the dead from the living?A
Ohlone avoidance of deceased’s name
Nez Percé respect for ancestral dead
Cocopa “Dance of the Gods” to seek a good afterlife
Sioux battle cry, “It’s a good day to die!”
In Celtic traditions, what is the term for the breach in time when supernatural communication with gods as well as the dead could take place?Answer Valhalla
In Japanese homes, an altar for honoring deceased relatives and ancestors is called aAnswer haka.
El D’a de los Muertos, the Mexican Day of the Dead, blends Catholic, Spanish, and Indian rituals. This celebration exemplifies an attitude toward death thatAnswer views death in an open, humorous, ironic manner.
perceives death as an incomprehensible phenomenon.
perceives death as the final chapter of a person’s existence.
views death as the ultimate test.
The first evidence of human funerary behavior dates toAnswer at least 300,000 years ago.
one million B.C.
the ancient caves of Utah.
Egypt’s King Tut.
The dance of death
Answer is a recent artistic expression of loss.
reflects ideas about the inevitability of death.
conveys the notion that death comes to evil persons.
excludes any erotic connotation.
Historically, death has been ascertained by the absence ofAnswer heartbeat and breathing
heartbeat and brain waves.
Research indicates that capital punishment isAnswer an exception to the notion that killing solves problems.
an effective deterrent for criminal behavior.
the strong penalty needed to make the criminal justice system work.
not an effective deterrent to murder.
Which of the following items is NOT matched correctly?Answer murder: the deliberate intentional killing of another human being
voluntary manslaughter: the killing of another human being in performance of a public duty
involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another human being as a result of criminal carelessness
noncriminal homicide: the killing of another human being involving self-defense
In comparing the volcanic eruptions of Mount Pelee and Mount St. Helens, the main difference mentioned in the text with respect to fatalities concerned theAnswer low population density of the area near Mount Pelee.
adequate early warnings in the case of Mount St. Helens.
mild nature of the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee.
actions taken by disaster workers in the case of Mount St. Helens.
All of the following are methods of determining clinical death EXCEPT:Answer cessation of heartbeat
cessation of breathing
decomposition of the body’s cells
lost brain stem functions
The modes of death recognized by law include all of the following categories EXCEPT:Answer accident.
The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was revised in what year to simplify organ donation?Answer 1968
What is an irreversible process of deterioration in the body’s systems and organs?Answer cellular death
Which of the following are components of a “death system,” as described by Robert Kastenbaum?
4. regulationsAnswer 1, 3 and 4
1, 2 and 4
1, 2 and 3
2, 3 and 4
How does the separation of civil and criminal law affect the modern system of justice?Answer Modern law views the accused as having a problem with a particular person.
Modern law views violence as an outgrowth of social and psychological problems rather than as individual acts.
Modern law considers the accused and the victim as equals in the legal equation.
Modern law views homicide as an act committed against the state rather than against an individual.
Depersonalization of the dying patient can occur when
1. an illness is not well understood.
2. physicians and nurses believe “nothing more can be done.”
3. physicians and nurses avoid contact due to their own fears.
4. hospital staff shifts change frequentlyAnswer 1 and 2
1 and 4
3 and 4
2 and 3
In Candace West’s study of how doctors and patients relate to each other, all of the following were true EXCEPT:Answer There is a “communications chasm” that hinders the healing process.
Patients want to talk about “the cure.”
There is a lack of introductions, greetings, laughter, and the use of the patient’s name.
Physicians tend to advance questions that restrict patients’ options for answers.
Which country spends more on health than any other industrialized nation?Answer United States
The emphasis on cure among professional caregivers can result in death being
Answer discussed objectively and openly.
seen as less stressful.
seen as a natural event and “I’ve done all I can.”
viewed as a failure.
When a nurse says to a patient “Oh, you’re doing so well,” his or her intention is probably toAnswer compare him or her to others.
avoid discussion and deny seriousness of the ailment.
help the patient realize that everybody is cheering him or her on.
provide reassurance to the patient.
All of the following are challenges to hospice and palliative care EXCEPT:Answer availability of a primary caregiver.
funding for services.
broadening access to encompass underserved patient populations.
lack of routinization of care and regulation.
Surveys indicate that most people diagnosed with a life-threatening illness
Answer would rather suspect it without being told directly.
would rather not know.
want to be told.
do not want their families to be told.
Hospice services typically include
Answer bereavement follow-up services for the family after death
prescribing a particular way of dying
a review of the family’s financial status
options for alternative and disease-directed therapies
The elements of the health care system are patients, institutions, andAnswer culture.
All of the following are features of St. Christopher’s hospice EXCEPT:Answer Wards are filled with flowers and photographs.
Children are encouraged to visit.
Pets are forbidden.
Relatives are allowed to stay with the dead body.