____ 78. Giving an alcoholic an emetic drug

____ 78. Giving an alcoholic an emetic drug so that each time she takes a drink she becomes nauseous and ill is a form of
a. systematic desensitization
b. aversive conditioning
c. behavioral redirection
d. negative reinforcement therapy

____ 79. Modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping are the major tools of
a. insight-rehearsal training
b. rational-emotive therapy
c. cognitive restructuring
d. social skills training

____ 80. The most widely prescribed class of psychiatric drugs are
a. neuroleptics
b. antipsychotic drugs
c. antianxiety drugs
d. antidepressant drugs

____ 81. Jennifer’s doctor has recently prescribed a drug that alters the activity in dopamine synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Jennifer for symptoms of
a. depression
b. schizophrenia
c. bipolar disorder
d. an anxiety disorder

____ 82. The side effect associated with taking traditional antipsychotic drugs that is characterized by chronic tremors and involuntary spastic movements is
a. infindibular recidivism
b. tardive dyskinesia
c. tachycardia palpitations
d. MAO inhibition

____ 83. The newest antidepressant drugs such as Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft
a. increase levels of dopamine in the brain
b. act as MAO inhibitors
c. slow the reuptake process at serotonin synapses
d. also reduce the manic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder

____ 84. Price has had several episodes of severe depression, but for the past week he has been euphoric and hyperactive, and he hasn’t slept for the past four nights. His family is concerned, and they have brought him to a mental health clinic for treatment. If the doctor who sees him prescribes medication to reduce Price’s current symptoms, the medication that will MOST likely be prescribed is
a. a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
b. a tricyclic drug
c. lithium
d. a drug from the benzodiazepine family

____ 85. The risks of ECT
a. have been completely eliminated by modern improvements in the procedure
b. may include both short- and long-term intellectual impairment
c. are so severe that the use of ECT has been banned by law
d. are negligible, as long as appropriate precautions are taken

____ 86. The MOST accurate statement about why ECT works to the degree that it does is that
a. it acts as a form of aversion therapy
b. it alters neural circuits in the brain
c. it alters neurotransmitter activity in the brain
d. no one is really certain why it works

____ 87. In the Featured Study which investigated the impact of combining insight therapy and medication, the researchers speculate that the combined treatment they tested may be best-suited for dealing with
a. both the biological and psychosocial substrates of old-age depression
b. the biological substrate, but not the psychosocial substrate of old-age depression
c. the psychosocial substrate, but not the biological substrate of old-age depression
d. the genetic substrate, but not the biological substrate of old-age depression

____ 88. Generally speaking, the majority of clinical psychologists describe themselves as using
a. a psychoanalytic approach to therapy
b. an eclectic approach to therapy
c. a Gestalt approach to therapy
d. a behavioral approach to therapy

____ 89. What percentage of psychiatric inpatient admissions are readmission of former patients?
a. approximately 1 percent
b. approximately 15 percent
c. approximately 65 percent
d. approximately 95 percent

____ 90. Taken as a whole, the evidence suggests that roughly __________ of the homeless suffer from severe mental illness (schizophrenic and mood disorders), and that another __________ or more are struggling with alcohol and drug problems.
a. one-third; one-third
b. one-half; one-third
c. one-third; one-quarter
d. one-quarter; one-third

____ 91. Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that panic disorders respond best to
a. systematic desensitization
b. cognitive therapy
c. behavior therapy or medication
d. group therapy

____ 92. Freud is to unconscious conflicts as Rogers is to
a. catharsis
b. maladaptive habits
c. incongruence
d. clarification

____ 93. Which of the following people are MOST likely to be viewed as honest and trustworthy?
a. older people
b. baby-faced people
c. people who are physically attractive
d. people who mimic our own mannerisms

____ 94. Sharon has only actually met three musicians who have had full beards, and she has also met three musicians who were clean-shaven. Still, she believes that most musicians have beards. Sharon’s belief reflects
a. an egocentric slant
b. an illusory correlation
c. a confirmation bias
d. the fundamental attribution error

____ 95. Harper is 35 years old, and he has just enrolled in his first university course. On the first day of class he looks over the individuals in the room, and sits next to another male student who appears to be in his early 30s. In this case, Harper has likely classified the other student
a. using a self-serving bias
b. as a member of his ingroup
c. as the teaching assistant for the class
d. as someone who has more university experience than Harper

____ 96. Dallas watches as Rhoda missteps in the cafeteria and spills coffee on herself and two other students. If Dallas concludes that Rhoda is an uncoordinated “klutz” who wasn’t paying attention to what she was doing, he has
a. been influenced by an illusory correlation
b. made an internal attribution
c. made a self-serving attribution
d. made an external attribution

____ 97. Imagine that you recently obtained a job that you applied for. According to Weiner’s attributional model, if you state: “I knew I would get the job because I just seemed to do everything right on the day of the interview,” you have made an
a. external-unstable attribution
b. internal-unstable attribution
c. external-stable attribution
d. internal-stable attribution

____ 98. If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the
a. false consensus effect
b. situational attributional tendency
c. self-serving bias
d. fundamental attribution error

____ 99. A self-serving bias is a tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to __________ and negative outcomes to __________.
a. situational causes; dispositional causes
b. dispositional causes; situational causes
c. consensus; uniqueness
d. ego strength; ego weakness

____ 100. Research has shown that initial attraction
a. to someone is minimally influenced by that person’s physical attractiveness
b. is greatly influenced by that person’s physical attractiveness
c. is more influenced by personality similarity than by physical attractiveness
d. is greatly influenced by perceived intellectual similarity

____ 101. Research on factors contributing to building relationships seems to support the adage
a. “similarity breeds contempt”
b. “similarity breeds liking”
c. “similarity builds uncertainty”
d. “similarity builds discrimination”

____ 102. A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion is called
a. passionate love
b. sexual love
c. platonic love
d. lustful love

____ 103. According to Hazan and Shaver’s model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are MOST likely to engage in casual sex?
a. secure
b. insecure
c. avoidant
d. anxious-ambivalent

____ 104. Love as the basis for marriage is
a. unique to the United States
b. a product of Asian collectivism
c. virtually universal across all cultures
d. an 18th-century invention of Western culture

____ 105. According to evolutionary theorists, which of the following factors is likely to be the MOST important for a female seeking a prospective mate?
a. social status
b. youthfulness
c. physical strength
d. physical attractiveness

____ 106. A number of studies have shown that attitudes are only mediocre predictors of behavior. One explanation for this finding is that
a. researchers failed to take variations in attitude strength into account
b. researchers failed to operationalize the concept of an attitude
c. subjects often intentionally lie about both their attitudes and their behavior
d. general beliefs and feelings aren’t likely to predict specific behaviors very well

____ 107. Which of the following characteristics is MOST likely to enhance the credibility of the source of a persuasive message?
a. height
b. friendliness
c. trustworthiness
d. physical attractiveness

____ 108. Which of the following statements regarding the use of weak arguments in persuasive communication is MOST accurate?
a. The more arguments one presents, the more effective the message will be, regardless of the strength of the arguments.
b. Adding weak arguments to a persuasive message will likely do more harm than good to one’s case.
c. The key determinant of the effectiveness of a persuasive message seems to be the ratio of strong arguments to weak arguments.
d. Weak arguments will enhance the effectiveness of a persuasive communication as long as they are presented clearly.

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