____ 41. According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis

____ 41. According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis put forth by Dollard and his colleagues,

  1. frustration is always a consequence of aggression
  2. aggression is always caused by frustration
  3. frustration causes males to be more aggressive than females
  4. frustration is only a factor in aggressive behavior for non-human species

____ 42. A police officer gives you a speeding ticket, and you take out your frustration and anger on your roommate.

This diversion of anger to a substitute target is known as

  1. catharsis b. displacement
  2. reaction formation
  3. overcompensation

____ 43. The idea that emotional tension can be released through behavior and that this response may be adaptive is

known as

  1. catharsis
  2. displacement
  3. an unconditioned response
  4. the safety-valve effect

____ 44. Garret is frustrated and angry when his request for a pay raise is turned down. After work, Garret goes to his

gym and hits the punching bag for 10 minutes. Garret finds that he feels less tense and wound up after his

workout. This change in Garret’s mood is consistent with the concept of:

  1. overcompensation
  2. undoing
  3. denial
  4. catharsis

____ 45. When final exam time rolls around, Murray finds himself eating all the time. This reaction to stress can be

referred to as

  1. reaction formation
  2. self-indulgence
  3. learned helplessness
  4. constructive coping

____ 46. Unconscious reactions for dealing with unpleasant emotions such as anxiety or guilt are referred to as

  1. constructive coping
  2. rationalizations
  3. neurosis
  4. defense mechanisms

____ 47. The component of Type A personality associated with coronary heart disease appears to be

  1. indecisiveness
  2. cynical hostility
  3. time urgency
  4. ambitiousness

____ 48. A person who is hard-driving, ambitious, competitive, and at risk for having a heart attack is said to have

  1. a Type B personality
  2. an internal personality
  3. an external personality
  4. a Type A personality

____ 49. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Type A individuals?

  1. They are competitive.
  2. They feel there’s never enough time to get everything done.
  3. They are easygoing and sociable.
  4. They are strongly achievement-motivated.

____ 50. Kyle is extremely ambitious. He has been in his current job for 12 months, and he has told everyone that if he

doesn’t get a promotion at his next evaluation he will move on. He is always in a hurry and impatient with

coworkers who don’t have their work done on time. He spends long hours at work, coming in early and

staying late. Kyle would most likely be described as having

  1. a Type B personality
  2. antisocial personality disorder
  3. a Type A personality d. dependent personality disorder

____ 51. Mickey is an impatient, highly competitive individual who is easily provoked into angry confrontations. He is

suspicious and distrusting of most of the people he works with. Friedman and Rosenman would probably

suggest that Mickey’s personality puts him at an increased risk for

  1. ulcers and stomach disorders
  2. asthma and other respiratory ailments
  3. high blood pressure and coronary heart disease
  4. a number of different types of cancer

____ 52. Emily is an excellent student. She puts in long hours on her schoolwork and often gets the top mark in the

class. However, she is always relaxed and seems fairly easy going. She does her schoolwork as it is assigned,

and doesn’t put herself under pressure by leaving things to the last minute. She is also always willing to take

the time to patiently explain difficult material to other students in her classes. Emily would most likely be

described as having

  1. a Type A personality
  2. prosocial personality disorder
  3. dependent personality disorder
  4. a Type B personality

____ 53. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion one can draw about Type A behavior and the risk of

coronary heart disease?

  1. The Type A person is six times more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease than the

Type B person.

  1. As it turns out, there is actually very little connection between stress and coronary heart


  1. The Type A person is more resistant to coronary heart disease than the Type B person.
  2. The relationship between the two seems more modest than originally thought, with Type

A behavior increasing coronary risk only for some.

____ 54. The component of Type A personality which is most strongly linked to the risk of coronary heart disease is

  1. competitiveness
  2. anger and hostility
  3. low self-esteem
  4. impatience and time urgency

____ 55. Laboratory experiments with cardiology patients have shown that brief periods of mental stress

  1. can trigger acute symptoms of heart disease, such as myocardial ischemia
  2. have little, or no, impact on overall cardiac function
  3. can intensify chromic symptoms of heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis
  4. can trigger emotional responses such as depression and feelings of despair

____ 56. Recent research evidence from studies which have investigated the link between depression and heart disease

suggests that

  1. the stress of living with heart disease may cause the onset of depression
  2. depression and heart disease are not correlated with each other
  3. the emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease
  4. depression and heart disease are both caused by the negative effects of smoking

____ 57. Studies of the immune system in humans have found that the immune response depends on actions of

  1. specialized red blood cells; known as hematocytes
  2. hormones known as lymphocytes
  3. specialized white blood cells known as lymphocytes
  4. hormones known as corticosteroids

____ 58. Studies examining the effect of social support on immune functioning show that

  1. social support can increase levels of key antibodies against respiratory infections b. social support typically has negative effects in the absence of stress
  2. social support is only a buffer for people with stress-related illnesses
  3. social support provides more benefits for the elderly

____ 59. Which of the following statements regarding the connection between social support and wellness is most


  1. Social support can serve as a buffer in times of high stress.
  2. Social support typically has negative effects in the absence of stress.
  3. Social support is only a buffer for people with stress-related illnesses.
  4. Social support provides more benefits for the elderly.

____ 60. Compared to optimists, individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style are more likely to attribute bad events


  1. their own personal shortcomings
  2. the actions of other people
  3. situational factors that are beyond their control
  4. bad luck or fate

<pclass=”msonormal” style=”color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Verdana, arial, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;”>____ 61. Which of these characteristics has NOT been linked to having an optimistic explanatory style?

  1. enhanced athletic performance
  2. higher levels of marital satisfaction
  3. higher levels of conscientiousness
  4. higher academic achievement

____ 62. Having a general feeling that “things” will be okay and problems will eventually work out is known as

  1. internal control
  2. optimism
  3. learned helplessness
  4. hardiness

____ 63. Which personality characteristic is most associated with superior physical health as well as higher academic

achievement and increased productivity?

  1. agreeableness
  2. openness
  3. optimism
  4. extraversion

____ 64. One personality characteristic correlated with good physical health is

  1. agreeableness
  2. openness
  3. conscientiousness
  4. extraversion

____ 65. Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such chronic diseases as lung cancer,

emphysema, and stroke?

  1. smoking
  2. poor nutrition
  3. lack of exercise
  4. obesity

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