____ 37. Prognosis is to etiology as

____ 37. Prognosis is to etiology as
a. outcome is to why
b. why is to outcome
c. what is to why
d. why is to what

____ 38. Roger enjoys gambling so much that he does it every day, totally neglecting his family and job. Roger’s behavior satisfies which criterion of abnormality MOST clearly?
a. personal distress
b. deviance
c. persistence
d. maladaptive behavior

____ 39. Lydia has gone in for a psychiatric assessment. She tells the clinician that lately she has been feeling completely hopeless and dejected, and she no longer enjoys doing any of the things she used to look forward to. The clinician would use
a. both Axis IV and Axis V of the DSM-IV to record these symptoms
b. Axis III of the DSM-IV to record these symptoms
c. either Axis I or Axis II of the DSM-IV to record these symptoms
d. Axis X of the DSM-IV to record these symptoms

____ 40. The study of the incidence and distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population defines the discipline known as
a. etiology
b. epidemiology
c. psychobiology
d. demography

____ 41. The cartoon character Charlie Brown, with his extreme dread, pessimism, worrying, and brooding, could be diagnosed as having
a. a generalized anxiety disorder
b. a phobic disorder
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. panic disorder

____ 42. Doris feels terrified every time she leaves her house, and avoids doing so whenever possible. Doris is MOST likely suffering from
a. generalized anxiety disorder
b. claustrophobia
c. agoraphobia
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

____ 43. Kate constantly thinks about jumping in front of an oncoming car when she is walking. The only way she seems to be able to stop these self-destructive thoughts is to say Mother Goose nursery rhymes over and over to herself. In this case, Kate’s symptoms are MOST consistent with
a. generalized anxiety disorder
b. panic disorder
c. bipolar disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

____ 44. “Preparedness” is a term coined by Seligman that refers to
a. a biological predisposition to be easily conditioned to fear certain things
b. the physical state or condition associated with a panic attack
c. psychological processes that accompany obsessive-compulsive behavior patterns
d. a particular type of learning situation in which negatively reinforced behaviors reduce the level of one’s generalized anxiety disorder

____ 45. Lillian sees her doctor nearly every week, and each time she has something different that is bothering her. Two weeks ago she had back pains, last week she had shortness of breath, and this week she has abdominal cramps. If Lillian has a psychological disorder, rather than an actual physical disorder, her symptoms are MOST consistent with
a. somatization disorder
b. hypochondriasis
c. conversion disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

____ 46. Hypochondriasis involves
a. the deliberate faking of physical illness
b. apparent physical illness caused by psychological factors
c. genuine physical illness caused in part by psychological factors
d. a tendency to misinterpret minor bodily changes as being indicative of serious illness

____ 47. Oscar was recently taken into custody in Idaho when he was found wandering the streets with no identification. When the police questioned him, Oscar had no idea who he was or where he lived. A check of missing persons showed that he had been missing from his home in Tennessee for the past 10 days. In this case, it is MOST likely that Oscar would be classified as having
a. dissociative amnesia
b. panic disorder
c. dissociative fugue
d. generalized anxiety disorder

____ 48. Janae is an 18-year-old college freshman. She has missed almost all her classes for the past month, and she spends most of her time in her bedroom. Frequently, she is still not dressed when her parents come home from work, and she often hasn’t eaten anything all day. She thinks her whole life is a failure, and she blames herself for being a social misfit whom everyone hates. Janae’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
a. antisocial personality disorder
b. major depressive disorder
c. generalized anxiety disorder
d. hypochondriasis

____ 49. Adena has just recovered from her first episode of major depression. Based on the findings from longitudinal studies, the likelihood that Adena will experience or relapse within the next five years is
a. approximately 60 percent
b. less than 10 percent
c. just over 25 percent
d. between 40 and 45 percent

____ 50. Evidence suggests that the incidence of depression is
a. decreasing in most Western countries
b. increasing, especially among recent age cohorts
c. remaining relatively stable over time
d. increasing in men, but remaining stable in women

____ 51. Tina has been extremely hyperactive for the past week, and she has been getting by with only 3 hours of sleep each night. Her thoughts seem to be racing out of control, and she is convinced that the novel she started last week will become a best seller and win a Pulitzer Prize, even though she has never had any of her writing published in the past. Tina’s symptoms suggest that she is currently experiencing
a. dysthymic disorder
b. generalized anxiety disorder
c. a manic episode
d. dissociative fugue

____ 52. Studies that have evaluated concordance rates for various mood disorders have found
a. only unipolar disorder has a genetic component
b. the influence of genetic factors appears to be stronger for unipolar disorders than for bipolar disorders
c. the influence of genetic factors is the same for both bipolar and unipolar disorders
d. the influence of genetic factors appears to be stronger for bipolar disorders than for unipolar disorders

____ 53. In his investigations of the cognitive factors that might contribute to depression, Seligman found that people with a pessimistic explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression. These individuals tend to attribute their setbacks to __________, and draw __________ conclusions about their personal inadequacies.
a. situational factors; narrow, specific
b. personal flaws; narrow, specific
c. situational factors; global, far-reaching
d. personal flaws; global, far-reaching

____ 54. The basic problem in the mood disorders is disturbed __________; the basic problem in the schizophrenic disorders is disturbed __________.
a. thought; emotion
b. perception; thought
c. thought; perception
d. emotion; thought

____ 55. Ivy excitedly tells you that she has been invited to sing at the coronation of the new King of Cyprus. You find this difficult to believe, considering Ivy sings terribly and Cyprus has an elected government, not a monarchy. Ivy’s statements are clearly out of touch with reality. It appears that Ivy is experiencing
a. delusions of grandeur
b. hallucinations
c. compulsions
d. loosening of associations

____ 56. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include
a. behavioral deficits such as flattened emotion, apathy, and poverty of speech
b. behavioral excesses such as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
c. antisocial behaviors such as violence and rage reactions
d. dissociative behaviors and the emergence of multiple personalities

____ 57. A patient with schizophrenia tends to have the MOST favorable prognosis when
a. the onset of the disorder is gradual
b. the onset occurs at an early age
c. the proportion of negative symptoms is relatively low
d. the patient’s family is high in expressed emotion

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