81. Which of the following is most accurate about infant emotion in the first 2 years of life?
a. Emotions are tied to internal states of pain and pleasure during the first 2 years of life.
b. Emotions change in stage-like progression from internal physical expressions to differentiation of self in relation to others in the environment.
c. Infant emotional expressions remain limited and unchanging during the first 2 years with no stage-like progression.
d. Infant emotions are primarily negative in the first 2 years, reflecting wariness, anger, and defiance.
82. Social smiles begin to be observed ________________.
a. at about one year
b. at about 20 weeks
c. at about 5 weeks
d. 12 hours after birth
83. Which is an example of a cognitive or mastery smile?
a. smile at being tickled
b. smile at making a bell jingle
c. smile at seeing a favorite toy
d. smile at seeing mommy in the morning
84. What is the relationship of high levels of motor activity and frequent crying at 4 months of age to later development?
a. There is no relationship to later behavior.
b. These babies become high exploring, curious toddlers.
c. These babies show greater fearfulness and shyness at later ages.
d. These babies have fewer behavior problems than the quiet, less active infants.
85. Japanese parents try to regulate anger by ____________.
a. displacing their feelings of anger toward an acceptable target such as a doll
b. minimizing their children’s exposure to anger or frustration
c. encouraging their children to express anger when they feel it
d. talking about their feelings when they are angry
86. Which of the following family factors is tied to increases in an infant’s negative emotionality?
a. being a first born child
b. high levels of marital dissatisfaction for mother or father
c. low educational level of mother
d. lack of grandparent involvement in childcare
87. When parents and infants can understand each other’s emotions, creating and modifying shared interactions in response to each other, this is called _______________.
88. On her first birthday, Emily looks at her mother as they observe the clown coming to her party. At first Emily is crying. Then her mother smiles and acts very happy, so Emily smiles, too. This is an example of ________.
c. visual acuity
d. social referencing
89. The psychosocial crisis of infancy is _______________.
a. initiative versus guilt
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. industry versus inferiority
d. trust versus mistrust
90. Which of the following statements captures the sense of trust?
a. A trusting relationship links confidence about the past with faith about the future.
b. A trusting relationship has nothing to do with the past, only the present.
c. A trusting relationship is only about the other person; not about oneself.
d. A trusting relationship can only be experienced once in a lifetime.
91. If the caregiver is unable to differentiate the infant’s needs or responds harshly to those needs, the infant is likely to develop a sense of __________________.
92. The critical period is _______________________.
a. the period of maximal readiness to achieve a behavior pattern or skill
b. the age of 2 months for establishing infant/caregiver attachment
c. not critical to humans
d. the age of 2 months for establishing trust
93. Konrad Lorenz applied the concept of critical periods to social development. He identified
the process of ____________ in young birds.
b. developmental tasks
c. stranger anxiety
94. Observations of naturally occurring disruptions in the parent-infant relationship suggest that the onset of a critical period for attachment occurs at which age?
a. 18 months
b. 12 months
c. 6 months
d. 3 months
95. What aspect of the question regarding a critical period for attachment remains unanswered?
a. Is there a point after which a secure attachment can no longer be formed?
b. What is the time of onset for the critical period for attachment?
c. How stable are attachments formed by the end of the first year of life?
d. When do infants express a preference for an object?
96. In the normal pattern of development, mother-infant interactions become increasingly _________.
97. Coordination of infant-caregiver interaction involves two related characteristics, which are _________.
a. causality and categorization
b. matching and synchrony
c. crying and smiling
d. trust and hope
98. Trust develops as parents _____________________.
a. make up innovative games to play with their baby
b. give their child more time to explore the environment
c. get older
d. interpret their children’s signals correctly
99. When infants pay attention to their caregivers, the caregivers attempt to stimulate them. When infants withdraw attention, caregivers reduce their efforts at stimulation. This illustrates the concept of ________.
c. communication repair
100. Within the process of communication, which of the following patterns builds a sense of mutuality between the infant and the caregiver?
a. attend, protest, anger
b. trust, mistrust, withdrawal
c. coordination, mismatch, repair
d. coordination, mismatch, protest
101. The prime adaptive ego quality of infancy is__________.
102. The infant’s sense of self as __________ combined with the caregiver’s sensitivity create the context for the emergence of hope.
a. emotional regulator
b. a permanent object
c. an animate category
d. causal agent
103. _________________ refers to a general orientation of wariness toward people and objects.
104. In the study of an intervention with mothers and infants who were classified as having an anxious attachment, which one of the following was an outcome of the intervention?
a. The mothers increased their self-acceptance.
b. The mothers showed greater empathy for their children.
c. The children improved in their ability to regulate their behavior in coordination with their mother’s.
d. All of these.
105. Cross-cultural observations suggest that infants are likely to be carried for longer periods during the day and for more months during infancy when________.
a. women marry at younger ages
b. families live in extended family groups
c. men help with childcare
d. infant mortality rates are high
106. According to the text, many parental behaviors that are important for the development of strong emotional bonds between parents and infants are also important for__________.
a. fostering intellectual growth
b. achieving autonomy
c. fostering communication mismatch
d. producing early signs of depression
107. In what way are fathers’ interactions likely to differ from mothers’ interactions with their infants?
a. Fathers are more likely to respond to the infants’ signals.
b. Fathers do more care giving, such as feeding and bathing.
c. Fathers interact in more physically playful ways.
d. Fathers focus more on fostering a sense of comfort and trust.