81. For a toddler, what is one of the consequences of having strong feelings of shame and doubt?
a. realistic expectations about performance
b. extreme sensitivity to the feelings of others
c. seeking out new information
d. avoiding new activities
82. In toddlerhood, shame is a result of two different types of experiences. One is failing to live up to standards for ideal behavior. What is the other?
a. social ridicule
b. too much praise
c. being overly indulged
d. spending too much time watching television
83. The prototype for the conflict between autonomy and social demands for conformity in toddlerhood is _________________.
a. eating with a spoon
b. toilet training
c. wearing lace-up shoes
d. answering the telephone
84. The central process through which toddlers achieve a sense of autonomy is ________.
85. The primary motivation for imitation in toddlerhood is the drive for________.
b. mastery and competence
86. Which of the following leads people to a positive belief that they are someone who can make things happen?
d. fidelity to others
87. What are the two characteristics of neuroses that are linked to the stage of toddlerhood?
a. withdrawal and depression
b. hysteria and phobia
c. regression and denial
d. obsessions and compulsions
88. How is poverty related to discipline practices?
a. Poor families are more likely to reward and recognize their children’s achievements.
b. Poverty is associated with more frequent use of spanking as a discipline technique.
c. There is no consistent relationship between poverty and discipline.
d. Poverty is associated with a greater emphasis on explanations about why a behavior was wrong or bad.
89. What is the impact of quality child care on measured IQ?
a. the impact is negative
b. the impact is positive
c. there is a positive impact only for middle income children
d. no impact has been found in research so far
90. Findings from the NICHD study of the effects of early childcare indicate _____.
a. family variables were more important predictors of cognitive development than quality of childcare
b. the impact on children who have been in church-operated centers is high
c. the impact on children of poverty is low
d. quality childcare was a more important predictor of cognitive development than family variables
91. Children who have participated in quality child care show higher levels of ____________.
c. social competence
92. Some studies have found that children who have had daycare experience are ____ than those who have not.
a. less able to empathize with peers
b. less compliant with parents’ wishes
c. more depressed
d. more lonely
93. In addition to the intellectual and social benefits of quality child care participation, studies of Head Start Programs have shown benefits in which of the following areas?
a. higher daily nutritional intake
b. better muscle tone and endurance
c. higher levels of risk taking behavior
d. greater artistic creativity
94. What is the greatest problem we face in the United States with respect to child care?
a. how to provide affordable, quality care to all who want it
b. lack of knowledge about how to train child care professionals
c. lack of need for these services
d. not enough physical accommodations that will meet licensing codes