76. In the study of three ethnic groups, what happened to relations with parents as peer relations increased in importance during early adolescence?
a. Family members continued to be the most central source of love and emotional support.
b. Parents decreased in importance as peer relations provided more closeness.
c. Adolescents spent more time at home in interaction with their parents after school and on weekends.
d. Family members were only important for those adolescents who did not have close friends.
77. As adolescents go through puberty, conflicts with parents .
a. are about basic values
d. are started by the father
78. Mild, periodic conflicts between adolescents and their parents reflect which of the following?
a. adolescent stubbornness as a result of hormone changes
b. parental rigidity as a result of age
c. the influence of friends’ pressures
d. a changing balance of power in the family
79. Which of the following was observed in research that examined the influence of parenting practices on peer group membership?
a. Parents who ignore their children have children who stay at home more.
b. Parents who emphasize academic achievement have children who belong to the “popular” crowd.
c. Parents who love and support their children have children who bring their friends back to the house after school.
d. Parents who do little to involve their children in decision-making have children who are socially rejected.
80. Which of the following is one of the important new aspects of peer relationships that occurs in early adolescence?
a. sexual interest
b. shared activities
c. best friend relationships
d. the formulation of a social contract
81. For young people, the transition to sexualized relationships including learning the art of flirtation, practicing how to approach, and learning the rules of engagement between the sexes is influenced by __________.
a. reading “how to” books
b. what they learn in the classroom
c. the norms of the peer group and the community
d. innate reflexes that become manifest at puberty
82. Which of the following is NOT one of the needs of an adolescent that is met by romantic relationships?
d. sexual gratification
83. In the transition to sexuality in the United States, the historical trend has been toward which of the following?
a. earlier involvement in sexual intercourse for boys and later involvement for girls
b. earlier involvement in sexual intercourse for boys and girls
c. later involvement in sexual intercourse for boys and girls
d. earlier involvement in sexual intercourse for girls and later involvement for boys
84. According to the model developed by Udry and Billy, the three dimensions that contribute to the transition to sexual intercourse in adolescence are _______________, ______________, and ________________.
a. motivation; impulse; drive
b. motivation; social control; attractiveness
c. social control; social norms; social roles
d. attractiveness; popularity; opportunity
85. Ann is an adolescent girl whose boyfriend wants to have sexual intercourse with her. Her decision about whether to do this is closely related to .
a. her physical attractiveness
b. her hormone levels
c. her parents values and the norms of her peer group
d. her desire to achieve independence
86. Which of the following is most accurate concerning sexual-minority youth’s sexual orientation?
a. Self-labeling does not occur until adulthood.
b. Disclosure occurs almost immediately after self-labeling.
c. Parental acceptance after disclosure is very important to well-being and identity development.
d. Disclosure typically occurs first with family members and then with close friends.
87. A review of government-funded programs in schools that taught abstinence found that ________.
a. 11 of the 13 programs presented proven claims
b. sexual intercourse declined for students in all program
c. the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases decreased
d. 11 out of 13 programs presented unproven claims, subjective conclusions, and unproven falsehoods
88. Which of the following is most accurate?
a. Adolescents rarely contract sexually transmitted diseases.
b. AIDS is the most common sexually transmitted disease among adolescents.
c. Most young people are interested in learning more about AIDS.
d. If chlamydia is untreated it may cause pelvic inflammatory disease that leads to infertility.
89. Of sexually-active adolescent males, about what percent use contraceptives consistently?
90. For adolescent males, the belief that males have a responsibility to prevent pregnancy is associated with _____.
a. sexual abstinence
b. embarrassment about sexuality
c. consistent condom use
d. having multiple sex partners
91. Complications during labor and delivery associated with having a baby at age 19 or younger are most likely a result of which of the following?
a. inexperience with childbearing
b. poverty and inadequate prenatal care
c. inconsistent condom use
d. none of these
92. Most studies of adolescent mothers find that the child’s father _____________________.
a. abandons the mother and child in the first month after birth
b. remains active in the child’s life throughout early childhood and adolescence
c. is a teenager himself
d. remains in contact with the mother and child
93. Which of the following statements about adolescent fatherhood is more likely to be endorsed by African American males than by European American males?
a. If my girlfriend got pregnant, I would want her to have an abortion.
b. If my girlfriend had a baby, I would prefer to live with her and the baby.
c. If my girlfriend had a baby, I would expect her parents to take care of the baby.
d. If my girlfriend had a baby, I would worry that it would prevent me from going on with my schooling.
94. Which of the following is considered to be of central importance to the prevention of early pregnancy for both boys and girls?
a. building greater confidence in and commitment to the consistent use of contraception as part of any sexual relationship
b. building greater social expectations and commitment to assuming the financial and social responsibilities of parenthood
c. fostering a sense of self-efficacy and investment in academic goals leading to post-secondary education
d. creating feelings of guilt about engaging in sexual intercourse
95. In the process of resolving the psychosocial crisis of ________________, adolescents become psychologically connected to the social life of their family, school, and community.
a. group identity versus alienation
b. fidelity versus despair
c. intimacy versus isolation
d. industry versus inferiority
96. The groups in which a person aspires to hold membership are called _______.
a. reference groups
b. membership groups
c. ethnic groups
d. cohort groups
97. Diverse processes such as joining a group, forming in-group and out-group attitudes, stereotyping, rejecting a group, and exercising leadership in a group, are all examples of __________.
a. group referencing
b. group reflecting
c. group representations
d. group operations
98. The intensification of emotions that occurs in early adolescence often contributes to a for adolescents to their groups.
a. distancing process
c. deepening commitment
d. categorization process
99. The formation of group identity requires which of the following?
a. a sense of having a history of shared experiences
b. adequate financial resources
c. a sense of sexual adequacy
d. adequate role containment
100. Hammed, who is 15, does not feel that he is a part of any social group; he is uneasy in the presence of peers. He is experiencing ____________________.
a. group identity