76. Which of the following is most important in the equity theory?

76. Which of the following is most important in the equity theory?

A. The evaluation of equality of inputs or equality of outcomes

B. The absolute value of one’s own outcomes considered by itself

C. The absolute value of one’s own inputs considered by itself

D. The relationship between the two ratios

77. Which of the following statements about the equity theory is true?

A. If the ratios are significantly different, a follower is not motivated to take change

B. As long as there is general equality between the two ratios, there is

motivation to change

C. The perception of inequity creates a state of tension and an inherent

pressure for change

D. Exactly what the follower will be motivated to do depends on the di- rection of equality

78. One’s core beliefs about being able to successfully perform a given task is


A. Self-actualization

B. Self-efficacy

C. Self-esteem

D. Self-fulfillment

79. Which of the following is an advantage of decentralized organizations?

A. Uniform policies and procedures

B. Minimal participation in the decision process

C. Greater acceptance and ownership of decision outcomes

D. Clearer coordination procedures

80. What is the disadvantage of functional organizations?

A. Poor coordination across departments

B. Duplication of resources

C. Less in depth technical expertise

D. Weak coordination across different product groupings

81. What is the advantage of a product organization design?

A. Centralized decision making and control

B. Efficient use of scarce resources

C. Skill development for technical personnel

D. It places a premium on organizational goals

82. An organization with a stable, well-established product line and the need for close coordination between functions would be best off with which type of design?

A. Bureaucratic

B. Functional

C. Matrix

D. Product

83. What is the greatest disadvantage of the matrix design?

A. Decreased lateral communication and coordination

B. Inefficient utilization of human resources

C. Employees end up working for two bosses

D. It can create scheduling nightmares

84. This represents the degree to which a leader’s work group is affected by the activities of other subunits within the organization.

A. Centralization

B. Lateral interdependence

C. Horizontal complexity

D. Spatial complexity

85. This is the weakest element of situational favorability.

A. Subordinate acceptance

B. Leader-member relations

C. Task structure

D. Position power

86. The highest levels of situational favorability occur when

A. Leader-member relations are good, the task is structured and position

power is high

B. There are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is unstructured and the leader does not have the power to reward/punish subordinates

C. Leader-member relations are good, the task is unstructured and position power is low

D. There are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is structured and the leader has the power to reward/punish subordinates

87. Which leader behaviors are marked by attention to the competing demands of treating followers equally while recognizing status differentials between the leader and the followers?

A. Achievement-oriented leadership

B. Directive leadership

C. Participative leadership

D. Supportive leadership

88. Leaders exhibiting participative leadership

A. Are very similar to the task behaviors from SLT

B. Are very similar to the relationship behaviors in SLT

C. Engage in the behaviors that mark consultative and group behaviors

D. Would be seen as both demanding and supporting in interactions with

their followers

89. Internal-locus-of-control followers

A. Are much more satisfied with leaders who exhibit achievement-oriented behaviors than they are with leaders who are supportive

B. Believe outcomes are a result of their own decisions

C. Are more satisfied with directive leader behaviors than they are with

participative leader behaviors

D. Believe they are, relatively speaking, “pawns of fate”

90. Which of the following is not a variable in the path-goal theory?

A. Achievement

B. Leader Behaviors

C. Followers

D. The Sitiuation

91. The _____ authority system is associated with leaders thought to possess,

divine or superhuman qualities.

A. Traditional

B. Legal-rational

C. Charismatic

D. Personalized

92. Transactional leadership

A. Occurs when a person possesses authority not because of tradition, but because of the laws that govern the position occupied

B. Serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and

their sense of higher purpose

C. Occurs when the traditions of society dictate who has authority and how this authority can be used

D. Occurs when leaders and followers are in some type of exchange

relationship in order to get needs met

93. This leadership serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’

values and their sense of higher purpose.

A. Supportive

B. Transactional

C. Transformational

D. Participative

94. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Transactional leaders are always controversial

B. All transformational leaders are charismatic

C. All charismatic leaders are transformational

D. Transactional leaders are also adept at reframing issues

95. According to the research on charismatic leadership, which of the following characteristics would fall in the leader category in the L-F-S interactional framework?

A. Crises

B. Feelings of empowerment

C. Rhetorical skills

D. Task interdependence

96. According to research, the leader’s vision is

A. Consistent with current realities

B. Usually presented in written form so subordinates can study it

C. Often depressing (in the short run) for the subordinates who must change their view

D. Often a collaborative effort

97. Which of the following statements about transformational leaders is true?

A. They are inherently future-oriented

B. Their vision is based solely on their own values

C. They sometimes take credit for others’ accomplishments

D. They tend to be emotionally expressive

98. Charismatic leaders

A. Use abstract and colorless rational discourse to reframe issues

B. Make extensive use of stories to make their points

C. Are adept at tailoring their language to particular groups

D. Are good in engaging groups mentally and emotionally

99. Charismatic leaders tend to be

A. Extremely smart

B. Data-driven

C. Emotionally expressive

D. Fairly introverted

100. This takes place when followers do no more than abide by the policies and

procedures surrounding change requests.

A. Cooperation

B. Compliance

C. Commitment

D. Malicious compliance

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