71. The ____ is the individual who is assigned the role

71. The ____ is the individual who is assigned the role of challenging assumptions made by the group.

a. group gadfly
b. multiple advocate
c. devil’s advocate
d. brainstormer
e. inferior member

72. Which of the following is a decision-making technique in which people are assigned to express competing points of view?

a. Point-counterpoint
b. Devil’s advocate
c. Debate
d. Groupthink
e. Brainwriting

73. The tendency of organizations to invest time and money in a solution despite strong evidence that is not appropriate is referred to as

a. technological decisions.
b. collective intuition.
c. decision learning.
d. team delay.
e. escalating commitment.

74. At the start of every shift, Carl, a delivery truck driver, plans out his route based on the addresses that he will be visiting to drop off packages. This can best be described as what kind of decision?

a. Programmed
b. Nonprogrammed
c. Wicked
d. Administrative
e. Intuitive

75. The four positions on the possibility of failure scale include certainty, risk, ambiguity, and:

a. Uncertainty
b. Conflict
c. Necessity
d. Indecision
e. Possibility

76. ________ decisions are associated with conflicts over goals and decision alternatives, rapidly changing circumstances, fuzzy information, and unclear links among decision elements.

a. Nonprogrammed
b. Programmed
c. Wicked
d. Conventional
e. Irrational

77. During the fallout of the global financial crisis of the late 2000s, finance companies had to make important decisions in a highly ambiguous environment. The decision to buyout failed banks could best be described as what type of decision?

a. Bounded
b. Programmed
c. Conventional
d. Wicked decision problem
e. Irrational decision

78. The growth of quantitative decision techniques that use computers has expanded the use of which decision-making approach?

a. Administrative
b. Classical
c. Intuitive
d. Political
e. Bureaucratic

79. Rodney doesn’t always realize that within his role as an air traffic controller, he must continuously perceive and process information based on knowledge and experience that he is not consciously aware of. This describes what type of decision-making?

a. Administrative
b. Right-brained
c. Satisficing
d. Rational
e. Intuitive

80. The __________ model of decision-making is useful for making nonprogrammed decisions when conditions are uncertain, information is limited, and there are managerial conflicts about what goals to pursue or what course of action to take.

a. Classical
b. Functional
c. Bureaucratic
d. Political
e. Administrative

81. Jefferson Inc. is an information technology consulting firm located in Washington D.C. Decisions at Jefferson are complex and involve many people, with a significant amount of disagreement and conflict. Which decision-making model fits best for this organization?

a. Political
b. Functional
c. Classical
d. Administrative
e. Bureaucratic

82. When managers ask questions such as “What is the state of disequilibrium affecting us?”, they are in which stage of the managerial decision-making process?

a. Selection of a desired alternative
b. Development of alternatives
c. Diagnosis and analysis of causes
d. Recognition of decision requirement
e. Evaluation and feedback

83. When quality control measures at the local tire plant were found to be inadequate, managers were asking themselves, “How did this occur?” and “What is the result?” The company is in which stage of the managerial decision-making process?

a. Selection of a desired alternative
b. Development of alternatives
c. Diagnosis and analysis of causes
d. Recognition of decision requirement
e. Evaluation and feedback

84. Research has identified four major decision styles. These include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Behavioral
b. Conceptual
c. Analytical
d. Authoritative
e. Directive

85. Finance managers at Big Bend Inc. made a financial blunder when they solely looked at the previous year’s sales to estimate sales for the coming year. This is an example of which management bias?

a. Being influenced by emotions
b. Perpetuating the status quo
c. Seeing what you want to see
d. Justifying past actions
e. Being influenced by initial impressions

86. When managers base decisions on what has worked in the past and fail to explore new options, they are:

a. Perpetuating the status quo
b. Being influenced by emotions
c. Being overconfident
d. Justifying past actions
e. Seeing what they want to see

87. As a top manager, Joanna works with others within her team every day in making important corporate decisions. Her preferred decision-making approach is to generate as many alternatives to problems as possible in a short amount of time. This approach is referred to as:

a. Groupthink
b. Devil’s advocacy
c. Point-counterpoint
d. Escalating commitment
e. Brainstorming

88. __________refers to the tendency of people in groups to suppress contrary opinions.

a. Point-counterpoint
b. Groupthink
c. Devil’s advocacy
d. Escalating commitment
e. Brainstorming

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