41. Children who grow up in families that are open to identifying and talking about emotions are more likely to ___________.
a. have mental health problems
b. show fearful behavior in the family
c. show sensitivity to others in relationships outside their family
d. show less skill in identifying the feelings of others
42. The capacity for pretense requires that children understand the difference between ____ and _____.
a. signs; symbols
b. pretend; real
c. language; thinking
d. fantasy; play
43. A child’s ability to pretend provides insight into his or her ____________.
b. attachment status
c. theory of mind
d. environmental resources
44. ______ is/are characterized by repetition of motor activities.
b. Sensorimotor play
c. Functional play
d. Imaginary friends
45. As children enter toddlerhood, they begin to imitate parental activities when they are alone. This is the beginning of which of the following?
a. sensorimotor play
b. parallel play
c. group play
d. symbolic play
46. In which type of play do children coordinate their pretense by establishing a fantasy structure, taking roles, agreeing on the make-believe meaning of props, and solving pretend problems?
a. solitary play
b. social play
c. social pretend play
d. sensorimotor play
47. Which of the following describes the direction of fantasy play from the beginning of toddlerhood to the end?
a. The play becomes less planned and more associational (one action sparks the rest).
b. The play relies increasingly on real objects.
c. The play is based largely on the imitation of real world characters.
d. The play increasingly involves the creation of complex sequences of actions and roles.
48. Which of the following describes the earliest phases of pretend play?
a. The child pretends to do some action he or she has actually done or seen someone do in the past.
b. The child links a sequence of actions together to tell a story.
c. The child uses an imaginary prop to substitute for a real object.
d. The child creates an imaginary companion.
49. As children become more skillful in their fantasy play, they tend to do which of the following?
a. elaborate common, daily experiences
b. use real objects or play versions of those objects as props in their pretense
c. benefit most from adult supervision
d. elaborate purely imagined characters and situations
50. Dramatic roleplaying in which a child takes on the role of another person or creates a fantasy situation increases steadily from the ages of_______.
51. According to Vygotsky’s concept of Zone of Proximal Development, children in pretend play ______.
a. reveal the areas of competence they are striving to master
b. show the limits of their patience
c. play best with the children closest to them physically
d. often regress in preschool play
52. Erikson viewed play as ______________.
a. a mechanism for dramatizing the psychological conflicts that children are struggling with
b. providing insight into the cognitive capacities for children who have some form of language delay
c. activity that enhances complex language use and problem solving
d. a mechanism that allows a child to assimilate reality and redefine it
53. Children who have well-developed pretending skills________.
a. have advanced abilities to take the point of view of others
b. are rather solitary and not well-liked by peers
c. have relatively undeveloped communication skills
d. have rather inflexible approaches to problem solving
54. What social characteristic is associated with well-developed pretending skills?
55. What advantage do toddlers who remain in a stable child care arrangement have over children who move from setting to setting?
a. They engage in more complex social pretend play.
b. They have more advanced motor skills.
c. They adapt more readily to new environments.
d. None of these.
56. What is the beneficial role of adult play companions for toddlers?
a. They keep the play reality based.
b. They decide the focus and length of the play.
c. They contribute to the child’s ability to create channels of shared meaning
d. They make sure the child does not spend too much time alone.
57. How common is it for toddlers to have imaginary companions?
a. very rare, less than 3% of all toddlers have imaginary companions
b. only very gifted children have imaginary companions
c. only bilingual children have imaginary companions
d. none of these
58. Which of the following is a common function of an imaginary companion?
a. promoting the scheme for the permanent object
b. establishing a sense of secure attachment
c. helping the child develop categorization skills
d. helping the child work out conflicts between right and wrong
59. Which of the following has been defined as the ability to comply with a request, modify behavior according to the situation, postpone action, and behave in a socially acceptable way?
a. superego control
c. social control
d. behavioral compliance
60. Which of the following are the most helpful tools toddlers have for managing their impulses?
a. language and fantasy
b. self-awareness and activity level
c. temperament and attachment
d. sense of humor and motor skills