26. Which of the following means that the goals to be achieved or the problem

26. Which of the following means that the goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear, alternatives are difficult to define, and information about outcomes is unavailable?

a. Certainty
b. Risk
c. Uncertainty
d. Ambiguity
e. Brainstorming

27. The condition under which ambiguity occurs is when:

a. alternatives are difficult to define.
b. objectives are well defined.
c. information about outcomes is readily available.
d. all the alternatives are known.
e. decisions are already made.

28. The classical model of decision making is based on ____ assumptions.

a. philosophical
b. irrational
c. economic
d. uncertainty
e. technological

29. Riley is a manager at the Tinker Tools. She is expected to make decisions that are in the organization’s best economic interests. Her decisions should be based on which of the following models?

a. The administrative model of decision making
b. The garbage can model of decision making
c. The scientific management model of decision making
d. The classical model of decision making
e. The humanistic model of decision making

30. Which of these assumptions are included in the classical model of decision making?

a. Problems are unstructured and ill defined.
b. The decision-maker strives for conditions of certainty.
c. Criteria for evaluating alternatives are unknown.
d. The decision-maker selects the alternatives that will minimize the economic return to the organization.
e. The situation is always uncertain.

31. Which approach defines how a decision-maker should make decisions?

a. normative
b. scientific
c. descriptive
d. reflective
e. humanistic

32. ____ is the approach that defines how a decision maker should make decisions and provides guidelines for reaching an ideal outcome for the organization.

a. Administrative
b. Descriptive
c. Normative
d. Bounded rationality
e. None of these

33. The ____ model of decision making is most valuable when applied to ____.

a. administrative, programmed decisions
b. classical, nonprogrammed decisions
c. classical, programmed decisions
d. classical, ambiguous decisions
e. administrative, structured decisions

34. ____ approach describes how managers actually make decisions, where as ____ approach defines how a decision-maker should make decisions.

a. Normative, descriptive
b. Normative, classical
c. Descriptive, normative
d. Descriptive, administrative
e. Normative, administrative

35. Which model of decision making is associated with satisficing, bounded rationality, and uncertainty?

a. classical
b. administrative
c. quantitative
d. rational
e. political

36. The ____ model of decision making describes how managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity.

a. normative
b. classical
c. administrative
d. scientific management
e. objective

37. The concept that people have the time and cognitive ability to process only a limited amount of information on which to base decisions is known as

a. satisficing.
b. bounded rationality.
c. classical model of decision making.
d. normative approach.
e. scientific approach.

38. The essence of ____ is to choose the first solution available.

a. bounded rationality
b. creativity
c. decision maximization
d. satisficing
e. the classical model of decision making

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39. Melissa is a manager at InStylez Clothing. Her job is very complex and she feels that she does not have enough time to identify and/or process all the information she needs to make decisions. Melissa’s situation is most consistent with which of the following concepts?

a. Bounded rationality
b. The classical model of decision making
c. Satisficing
d. Brainstorming
e. Scientific management

40. Intuition is based on ____, but lacking in ____.

a. conscious thought, practicality
b. experience, applicability
c. a solid analysis, applicability
d. experience, conscious thought
e. thought-process, guts

41. Most managers settle for a ____ rather than a(n) ____ solution.

a. minimizing; maximizing
b. satisficing; maximizing
c. top-level; bottomline
d. maximizing; satisficing
e. challenging; simple

42. Which of the following is the process of forming alliances among managers during the decision making process?

a. Networking
b. Socializing
c. Coalition building
d. Satisficing
e. Passing the buck

43. The ____ model closely resembles the real environment in which most managers and decision-makers operate.

a. normative
b. administrative
c. descriptive
d. classical
e. political

44. All of these are basic assumptions of the political model EXCEPT

a. organizations are made up of groups with diverse interests, goals, and values.
b. information is clear and complete.
c. managers do not have the time, resources, or mental capacity to identify all dimensions of the problem.
d. managers engage in the push and pull of debate to decide goals and discuss alternatives.
e. all of these are basic assumptions of the political model.

45. All of the following are characteristics of the classical decision making model EXCEPT

a. clear-cut problems and goals.
b. conditions of certainty.
c. rational choice by individual for maximizing outcomes.
d. limited information about alternatives and their outcomes.
e. all of these are characteristics of classical decision making model.

46. All of the following are characteristics of the administrative decision making model EXCEPT

a. vague problem and goals.
b. conditions of certainty.
c. limited information about alternatives and their outcomes.
d. satisficing choice.
e. all of these are characteristics of administrative decision making model.

47. Shirley works in the human resource department at Turtle Shells, Inc. She believes she is seeing an increase in drinking problems among the workforce. She thinks she needs to investigate further. She is at what stage of the managerial decision making process?

a. Diagnosis and analysis of causes
b. Development of alternatives
c. Recognition of decision requirement
d. Evaluation and feedback
e. Selection of desired alternatives

48. A(n) ____ occurs when the organizational accomplishment is less than established goals.

a. strength
b. threat
c. diagnosis
d. opportunity
e. problem

49. ____ is the step in the decision-making process in which managers analyze underlying causal factors associated with the decision situation.

a. Analysis
b. Diagnosis
c. Recognition
d. Judgment
e. Identification

50. Which of the following is the first step in the managerial decision making process?

a. Evaluation and feedback
b. Development of alternatives
c. Recognition of decision requirement
d. Diagnosis and analysis of causes
e. Selection of desired alternative

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