21. According to behavioral learning theory, internalization is a result of ________________.
c. cognitive judgments
d. reinforcements and punishments
22. One way to sustain internalization is through _____.
a. avoidance conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. reward conditioning
23. Joelle, a 6-year old, really wants to eat a cookie out of the cookie jar. However she remembers how mad her mother got at her when she ate a cookie right before dinner last week and she starts to feel anxiety. In the end, Joelle decides not to eat the cookie because she knows it is wrong. This is an example of __________.
a. operant conditioning
b. reward conditioning
c. avoidance conditioning
d. anxiety conditioning
24. Every day Johnny watches Tally get in trouble when she rides her bike further than their mother allows them to go. Johnny really wants to go around the corner when riding his bike but he knows his mother will be angry and that he will get in trouble, so he stops at the corner and turns back towards their house on his bike. This is an example of __________________.
a. observation of models
b. cognitive schemes
c. help giving behaviors
25. According to social learning theory, learning the moral code occurs largely through which of the following?
a. observation and imitation
b. cognitive schemes
c. help giving behaviors
d. guilt and shame
26. Samantha, who is 5 years old, is watching TV and sees a boy tell his mother a lie. Nothing bad happens to the boy. According to social learning theory, she is likely to conclude that __________.
a. lying is all right
b. lying is morally wrong
c. lying is a violation of one’s social contract
d. lying is acceptable as long as it does not disrupt the authority relations in the family
27. Piaget described the major transition in moral development from heteronomous to__________ morality.
28. When children see rules as a product of cooperative agreements, they are said to have achieved a level of _________________ morality.
29. According to cognitive learning theory, an important aspect of moral behavior is _____________.
a. one’s identification with a loving parent
b. whether one believes the behavior would be observed and punished
c. whether one understands that morality is a product of a social contract
d. whether one has been punished by spanking or loss of privileges
30. According to cognitive developmental theory, advances in moral reasoning occur when a child has to reconcile new views about basic moral concepts with existing views about what is right or wrong. This process is called __________.
a. social convention
c. conventional morality
31. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s theory by developing a theory of stages of moral judgment. Children of the early-school-age period (4 to 6) are most likely to be at which level?
32. When a person decides whether something is morally right or wrong based on how individuals in positions of authority view it, the person is said to be at which level of moral reasoning?
33. Which of the following statements about stage 6 moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s model is most accurate?
a. Most adults function at stage 6 reasoning.
b. At stage 6, decisions about justice are based on whether the behavior upholds or violates the laws of society.
c. Stage 6 reasoning requires the development of a set of universal ethical principles that apply across time and culture.
d. None of these.
34. Martin Luther King, who fought for civil rights of minorities and underrepresented groups, displayed what level of morality according to Kohlberg’s theory?
35. Research with early-school-age children suggests that their moral reasoning focuses on ______________.
a. upholding a social contract
b. conforming to the opinions of legitimate authorities
c. universal ethical principles
d. consequences of their behavior
36. What type of early childhood educational environment can promote more autonomous, flexible moral reasoning in young children?
a. Make sure rules are clearly stated at the beginning of the school year.
b. Punish children quickly and not overly severely when they break rules.
c. Involve children in rule making and teach them strategies to help resolve conflicts.
d. Make sure parents and teachers agree about what behaviors are wrong and how to correct these behaviors.
37. Which of the following is an example of a social convention transgression as compared to a moral transgression?
a. failing to knock on the door before entering a room
b. telling a lie
c. stealing notes from another student
d. destroying another child’s gloves and mittens
38. According to psychoanalytic theory, a strong morality (superego) results from ______________.
b. parental identification
c. strong id impulses
d. defense mechanisms
39. Several of Freud’s ideas about moral development have been shown to be incorrect. What is one of these ideas?
a. Males would have a weaker superego than females.
b. Identification with the mother has a greater role to play in moral development than identification with the father.
c. Parents who use harsh punishment to restrict a child’s impulses will produce children with a stronger superego.
d. The superego develops in infancy.
40. The new psychoanalytic perspective on moral development has revised Freud’s original thinking in what way?
a. Moral development is seen as emerging earlier than Freud thought, in the context of the first close, emotional bonds with a caregiver.
b. Moral development is viewed as almost entirely cognitive; the role of emotion is much less than Freud thought.
c. Morality is now considered primarily a new series of defense mechanisms against anxiety.
d. Morality is seen as developing after latency, during the reawakening of Oedipal and Electra fantasies that accompany puberty