17. In the Featured Study on stress and the common cold

17. In the Featured Study on stress and the common cold, Cohen and his colleagues found that, in the subsample of subjects without an infectious roommate,
a. there was no difference in the incidence of colds between high-stress and low-stress subjects
b. low-stress subjects were more likely to develop colds than high-stress subjects
c. the colds developed by low-stress subjects were more severe than the colds in high-stress subjects
d. high-stress subjects were more likely to develop colds than low-stress subjects

____ 18. Compared to optimists, individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style are more likely to attribute bad events to
a. their own personal shortcomingsb. the actions of other people
c. situational factors that are beyond their control
d. bad luck or fate

____ 19. One personality characteristic correlated with good physical health is
a. agreeableness
b. openness
c. conscientiousness
d. extraversion

____ 20. Luigi knows that the surgeon general has determined that smoking increases the risk of various types of cancers, however he is sure he won’t develop cancer. Luigi’s pattern of behavior illustrates the idea that
a. many health-impairing habits creep up on us
b. people tend to rationalize high-risk behaviors by pointing out healthy habits that offset their unhealthy habits
c. people often underestimate the risks associated with their own health-impairing behaviors
d. people believe the risks associated with health-impairing habits are overstated by media sources

____ 21. Catastrophic thinking is characterized as involving
a. personality disordered type of thinking
b. thinking associated with neuroticism
c. exaggeration of the magnitude of one’s problems
d. focusing on major stressors and ignoring the impact of minor frustrations

____ 22. Research has shown that vengefulness after a wrongdoing is correlated with
a. increased life satisfaction
b. rumination and negative emotions
c. a reduction in residual feelings of hostility
d. catharsis and emotional release

____ 23. Herbert Benson devised a simple procedure, called the relaxation response, that can have beneficial health effects. To experience the full benefits, the procedure should be practiced
a. on a daily basis
b. whenever a person has to deal with a major stressor
c. for a minimum of 50 minutes a day, three days per week
d. only when traditional medical treatments produce no improvement

____ 24. Pete is the lead prosecution attorney in a murder case. So far the case has not been going well for him, and the defense attorneys have presented effective rebuttals for most of the points he has raised. The judge adjourned the case for the weekend, and Pete will have to present his closing arguments first thing Monday morning. While he is trying to write his closing statement, he daydreams about a surprise eyewitness to the crime suddenly stepping forward and clinching the case for him. In this example, Pete is MOST likely
a. experiencing conflict, and he is using overcompensation to deal with the anxiety the conflict has generated
b. experiencing frustration, and he is using fantasy to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated
c. experiencing conflict, and he is using undoing to deal with the anxiety the conflict has generated
d. experiencing frustration, and he is using intellectualization to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated

____ 25. Holmes and Rahe reasoned that major sources of stress for people come from
a. failures
b. life events involving loss
c. changes in one’s life that require readjustment
d. only those life changes the person sees as negative

____ 26. What appears to mediate between a potentially stressful event and the emotional, physiological, and behavioral response to that event?
a. the magnitude of the event
b. the appraisal of the event
c. the frequency of occurrence of the event
d. the number of other people who are present

____ 27. Cannon’s fight-or-flight reaction is mediated by the
a. skeletal nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. parasympathetic nervous system
d. peripheral nervous system

____ 28. Dustin was driving his car on an icy road when the back end started to skid out of control. His car crossed the centerline, and he could see the headlights of rapidly approaching, oncoming traffic. His entire body became energized. His heart rate and respiration increased, and he began to perspire profusely. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, Dustin was experiencing
a. a resistance reaction
b. physiological exhaustion
c. autonomic rebound
d. an alarm reaction

____ 29. Ivan’s car began to slip sideways on the rain-slick road. As his car spun out of control, and into the path of oncoming traffic, his pituitary gland began to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This would have stimulated the adrenal glands and caused
a. the adrenal cortex to begin to release corticosteroids
b. the adrenal medulla to begin to release corticosteroids
c. the adrenal cortex to begin to release catecholamines
d. his amygdala to slow the release of acetylcholine

____ 30. The idea that emotional tension can be released through behavior and that this response may be adaptive is known as
a. catharsis
b. displacement
c. an unconditioned response
d. the safety-valve effect

____ 31. Recent research evidence from studies which have investigated the link between depression and heart disease suggests that
a. the stress of living with heart disease may cause the onset of depression
b. depression and heart disease are not correlated with each other
c. the emotional dysfunction of depression may cause heart disease
d. depression and heart disease are both caused by the negative effects of smoking

____ 32. Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately
a. 5 to 10 percent of the time
b. 30 to 60 percent of the time
c. 75 percent of the time
d. 80 to 90 percent of the time

____ 33. The therapeutic technique that focuses on altering a client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behavior is
a. self-monitoring therapy
b. constructive coping therapy
c. rational-emotive therapy
d. behavioral therapy

____ 34. When you tell yourself that you will never be happy again now that your significant other has ended the relationship, you are engaging in what Albert Ellis calls
a. catharsis
b. catastrophic thinking
c. calamitous thinking
d. primary appraisal

____ 35. A friend shows you an article in the newspaper which indicates a researcher found the prevalence of a specific health disorder increased by 70% in individuals who consumed calcium-enhanced milk products. After reading this article, your friend has decided to stop purchasing ANY products that are calcium-enhanced. Based on the information provided in the critical thinking application at the end of the chapter, you should tell your friend that
a. the reported percentage increase may not be important if the overall base rate of the health disorder is quite low
b. the reported percentage increase may not be important if the overall base rate of the health disorder is quite high
c. the reported percentage increase probably excludes a number of factors, and the risk may actually be greater than 70%
d. it is only necessary to cut out milk products, but there is no need to cut out other products which might also contain calcium

____ 36. The terms “mental illness” and “psychopathology” are MOST closely associated with which model of abnormal behavior?
a. the learning model
b. the humanistic model
c. the medical model
d. the psychodynamic model

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