101. Marketing communications

101. Marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade, and remind consumers—directly or indirectly—about the products and brands that they sell. List the eight major modes of communication that make up the marketing communications mix.


102. Explain the elements of the macromodel of communication process and list the nine elements contained.

103. For a buyer with high involvement with a product category who perceives high differentiation within it, describe the six elements of the hierarchy-of-effects model.

104. There are eight steps in developing effective communications. List these steps in their order of flow.


105. Formulating the communications to achieve the desired response will require solving the problems of message strategy and creative strategy among others. Define and then describe the differences between these two strategies.

106. A spokesperson’s credibility is very important to his or her effectiveness as a message source. What factors underlie source credibility and what makes for the most highly credible source?

107. Explain the principle of congruity as it pertains to message sources. And what happens when a person holds one attitude toward the source and the opposite toward the message.

108. Many companies set promotion expenditures at a specified percentage of sales or of the sales price. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method?


109. Why do companies use sales promotion tools, and what three distinctive benefits do these tools offer?

110. Communication tools vary in cost-effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness. Discuss which communication tools are most cost-effective at the five stages of buyer readiness

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