1. Sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways in the infant brain while less used pathways may disappear. This is called __________.
c. visual acuity
2. Which of the following sensory/motor systems is least well developed in newborns?
b. voluntary motor activity
3. Which of the following motor skills is NOT acquired during the first year of life?
a. standing alone
c. rolling over
4. Infants who are inactive and have mild, low-key reactions to new environmental stimuli, are generally negative in mood, and have a hard time adjusting to new situations are considered to fall within which temperament category?
5. During the second half of the first year, two signs of a child’s growing attachment to a specific other person are ________________________.
a. first habits; circular reactions
b. stranger anxiety; separation anxiety
c. rooting; grasping
d. intersubjectivity; matching
6. One-year old Benjamin often returns to his father repeatedly for a hug when playing with his trucks on the family room floor. Returning to his father shows that Benjamin is using his father as a ___________________.
a. habituation point
b. exploration point
c. secure base
d. behavioral base
7. Which of the following is used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?
a. An infant calls to his or her attachment figure by name.
b. An infant tries to maintain physical contact with the object of attachment.
c. An infant acts fussier in the afternoons than in the evenings.
d. An infant shows distress when the loved person comes near.
8. Corey actively explores the living room at his aunt’s house while his mother is sitting on the couch. When she leaves to get a drink in the kitchen, Corey fusses, but he calms down quickly as soon as she returns. Corey may be best described as having a(n) __________ attachment.
9. According to Piaget’s theory, what is the primary mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy?
b. sensorimotor adaptation
10. The first phase in the development of causal schemes is the phase of _______.
b. circular reactions
11. Which of the following is an example of sensorimotor intelligence?
a. sucking differently from a bottle and from a breast
b. solving an arithmetic problem
c. pretending to be a fireman
d. using words as labels for objects
12. Ricky, who is 6 months old, discovers that if he lets his spoon drop it will fall to the floor and make a noise. He repeatedly drops his spoon and expresses great delight. This behavior is an example of ___________.
a. sensorimotor causality
c. object permanence
13. Which of the following is among the earliest emotions to be expressed in infancy, before 6 months of age?
14. _______________ illustrates how members of a cultural group build a shared view of reality during infancy.
b. Social referencing
d. None of these
15. In infancy, trust refers to the infant’s sense that he or she is ___________.
d. skillful and resourceful
16. Mistrust may develop if a caregiver is unusually harsh while meeting an infant’s needs or if ____________.
a. the caregiver responds too quickly
b. the caregiver talks to the infant too much
c. the caregiver caters to the child’s every whim
d. the caregiver cannot identify the child’s needs and respond appropriately to them
17. Which of the following is the central process for resolving the psychosocial crisis of infancy?
b. social support
c. mutuality with the caregiver
18. A critical period refers to which of the following?
a. a time of intense interaction between parents and babies
b. a life stage that is more important than other life stages
c. a time of maximal readiness for the development of some behavior
d. a time in life when a person has to make an important life decision
19. Within the process of communication, the pattern of coordination, mismatch, and repair builds a sense of ___________ between the infant and the caregiver.
20. In their parental roles, mothers in the United States tend to emphasize ______ while fathers tend to emphasize _________.
a. physical play; caregiving
b. the process of development; product
c. object permanence; the development of causal schemes
d. intersubjectivity; communication repair