1. Leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals.
2. Leadership is reciprocal.
3. Influence means that the relationship among people is passive.
4. Recognizing that successful leaders share specific personal characteristics, leadership research has validated Leadership Trait Theory.
5. Intelligence, verbal ability, and high values are three distinguishing personal characteristics associated with successful leaders.
6. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, and the desire to lead, are all intelligence and ability components of personal characteristics of leaders.
7. Ohio State University researchers identified two major behaviors called consideration and initiating structure.
8. Consideration is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment.
9. Initiating structure is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.
10. Ohio State’s “high-high” style is not always the best, according to new research.
11. The leaderhsip grid suggests a two-dimensional leadership theory that measures a leader’s concern for people and concern for production.
12. Job-centered leaders are those leaders that establish high performance goals and display supportive behavior toward subordinates.
13. The country club management style (1,9) stresses high service and concern for guests or customers, sometimes to the detriment of employees of the firm.
14. To match the leader’s style with the situation by changing factors in the situation to achieve the best match is the basic idea with Fiedler’s contingency theory.
15. According to Fiedler, leader-member relations, task structure and task consideration are the three factors that combine to determine the leadership situation.
16. Task Structure refers to the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.
17. According to Fiedler, the task-oriented leader excels in the favorable situation whereas relationship-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of moderate favorability.
18. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory focuses a great deal of attention on the characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.
19. Situational theory model is easier to understand than Fiedler’s model, but it incorporates only the characteristics of followers, not those of the situation.
20. According to Hersey and Blanchard, the telling style is appropriate for followers with moderate readiness.